Botanique Noms de plantes → Cinghalais Noms de plantes උද්භිද නම් → නම් | Offre exclusive !

Noms botaniques, (anglais) Cinghalais Sanscrit (Pali) tamil Toponymes, notes, liens Abelmoschus angulosus, A.moschatus (Muskdana,
Ambre, Hibiscus avec des graines de mousse, Okra, Okra ornemental)
Kapukinissa latakasturika- Varttilai Kasturi- Les graines de cette plante ressemblant à un okra sont parfumées et l'huile est
utilisé dans les parfums.
Il est utilisé dans la médecine indo-asiatique comme efficace contre "Pheglm (sem") au Sri Lanka.
Lanka) et "Air" (Vaatha)., Et pour aphrodisiaque, opthalmique, cardiotonique,
digestives et autres applications en phytothérapie, en thérapie de la morsure de serpent, etc.
images Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra, doigts de dames, Bhindi) Bandakka pitali Vendai, Vendaikkaay Images et écriture
Plaintes de médecine traditionnelle (à base de plantes), etc.

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Abelmoschus esculentus

andhamula
ventai
–->

Abrus melanospermus, Abrus pulchellus Ela Olinda – – Une parcelle vivace mince, glabre à longs entrenoeuds, tiges minces et cylindriques,
ramifié à l'écorce brune ridée et lisse; les feuilles alternent avec des stipules.

"les feuilles sont de loin la partie la plus douce de la plante et on peut en tirer un extrait tolérable, mais dans la plus grande partie de l'Inde, où la vraie réglisse peut être obtenue en quantité quelconque comme article de commerce, elle serait beaucoup plus cher de les collectionner plutôt que d’utiliser de la réglisse.
Les racines de Taverniera nummularia et Alysicarpus longifolius sont douces comme la réglisse et sont appelées réglisse en Inde. "(Dymcock, directeur, Hooper)
– Abrus precatorius Olinda Raktika Kakachinchi Kunri, Adisamiyai Les graines sont plus toxiques
images

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Abrus precatorius


kunrimani


Abrus pulchellus


vellakundumani

->

Abutilon indicum (mauve indienne) Beheth Anoda, Wal Anoda Athibala, – thuththi La plante peut atteindre deux mètres, avec des fleurs jaune d’or.
Les parties en poudre de la feuille sont consommées avec du miel en médecine alternative.
herbacé
la médecine. Par exemple, ses feuilles sont utilisées pour traiter les infections cutanées.

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Abutilon indicum


tous

->

Acacia Arabica (Arbre Babul, gommier indien, Gondh)
Famille de Fabaceae Baabulu, gam babbula, Vabbula,
Kimshuka ou Palasa ou flamme de la forêt. Karuval, Kinthirikkam (malayalam) Une espèce d'acacia qui produit une résine gingivale utilisée en médecine et en médecine
à des fins économiques diverses. L’acacia a des propriétés astringentes, stériles et toniques,
et parmi ces variétés, la gomme d'acacia et l'acacia catechu sont largement utilisées en médecine.
Il est ajouté aux préparations pharmaceutiques en tant que charge ou base.
Images et écriture
Acacia Caesia Hingurupatta vel,
Hingurupaththa Vael Nikunjika indu, intu, vellintu, inkakkai – Acacia catechu (Acacia)
Regarde aussi Dichrostachys cinerea Katu Andara, Kaippu (?)
Regarde aussi Prosopis cinerea, connu sous le nom de "vanni-andara". – Karunkali, Karangalli Un grand arbuste aux épines utilisé comme haie.
Fleurs axillaires. Graines en gousses minces.
-Les branches en bois sont utilisées comme brosses à dents.
Pod en poudre est un
substitut de savon. La feuille est utilisée comme légume. la
l'écorce en poudre est aussi un savon de substitution et sa décoction
il est utilisé comme un meurtrier de poux.
voir Soloman eraju et al., science actuelle, vol. 91, NO. 7 octobre, 10 octobre 2006

Il a été prétendu que les scientifiques écossais ont découvert
l'arbuste étroitement lié Dichrostachys cinerea être une source précieuse
de charbon actif beaucoup mieux en qualité (taille de grain plus fine)
comparé au charbon actif oconut et aussi beaucoup moins cher.

Des scientifiques de l'Université Strathclyde mettent fin au cauchemar des herbes du Marabu

Cependant, son utilisation comme source possible de charbon semble avoir été connue à Cuba,
Et en 2011, les exportations de charbon ont atteint une valeur de 6 millions de dollars:
Production de charbon à Cuba

Acacia Chundra, Acasia Sundra Kihiri, Rat Kihiriya – karangali Un petit arbre avec une écorce brun foncé et de jeunes boutons pourpres. Acacia concinna, Acacia hooperiana, Acacia sinuata (Soap-pod)

Famille: Fabaceae ou mimosaceae (famille Touch-me-not)
Image et écriture Seenidda Bahuphenarasa, Bhuriphena, Charmakansa, Charmakasa, Phenila
Image et écriture Cikkay, Shikakai

L'arbre sert de nourriture aux larves de papillons Hordonia pantoporia.
Pour une tonique capillaire efficace, une décoction de Seenidda (acacia concinna) constitue un excellent lavage des cheveux.
Les gousses en poudre peuvent être utilisées comme shampooing naturel. Shikakai a un pH naturel très faible et très doux et est idéal pour se laver les cheveux. Luuwilla peut être utilisé comme substitut. Les deux plantes favorisent la croissance des cheveux, tuent les poux et éliminent les pellicules. Acacia Cornigera(Cockspur) Kukul-Katu Andara
Un petit arbuste menaçant et piquant trouvé simultanément dans la zone sèche d'Ambalanthota.
Nous ne sommes pas sûrs de cette identification de "kukul katu" andara comme
Acacia Cornigera. Si vous avez des informations, s'il vous plaît écrivez à
place.names@yahoo.com –

Parfois appelée Bullhorn ou Cow Thorn, cette plante entretient une relation symbiotique avec une espèce de fourmi agressive et douloureuse (Pseudomyrmex ferruginea). Les fourmis vivent parmi ses épines et protègent l’arbre des plantes envahissantes en essayant de pousser près de son tronc ou de hautes feuilles dans le feuillage. Les fourmis émergent également des épines pour attaquer d'autres insectes, humains et animaux, qui entrent en contact avec l'arbre.

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Acacia Eburnea


Kudai Vel


Acacia Eburnea


Kutai Velam

->

Acacia farnesien Seenidda – Velvel – Acacia ferruginea Ela Kihiriya – Voir ci-dessous Rath Kihitiya – Acacia leucofloea Katu Keena, Katu Kihiri – velvelam, karuvel,

Le & # 39; katu & # 39; en cinghalais, il peut avoir le sens d'épine ou de brosse dans la forêt, tandis que
keena signifie aussi aigu.
Le mot "veau" en tamoul signifie "épine" et karuvéal pratiquement
signifie "épines noires" – Acacia nilotique (gomme arabique) Katu Kihiri babbula, Varvrurha tiritapicam, kathira maram La gomme arabica a été introduite en Asie du Sud par les Arabes à l’époque médiévale.

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Acacia nilotique


karuvelam


Acacia pennata


hindou


Acacia pennata


kattusikai


Acacia polacantha


cilai1

->
Acacia tomentosa Ali Katu – Aani mulla –

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Acalypha fruticosa


Cinni

->

Acalypha indica Kuppamenia, Kuppamenia haritamanjari kuppaimeni Feuilles simples, alternantes et annuelles, de 3,7 ~ cm de long,
Le même nom est utilisé de manière déroutante pour la Nepeta Cateria
ou Catnip dans
langues locales du Sri Lanka. L'acalypha est utilisé contre l'asthme, les piles,
la polyarthrite rhumatoïde, etc.
image

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Acalypha indica


Kuppai Meni


Acalypha paniculata


kuppaimeni
->

Acorus calamus (Sweet Flal, Calamus) Wadakaha, Vad (h) akaha –

Traditionnellement utilisé contre la dépression, les troubles mentaux
et faiblesse générale. Acorus calamus est également associé à
Racine polygonale pour aider à maintenir la santé mentale et intellectuelle
des personnes âgées et démence ou perte de mémoire
(troubles cognitifs. Recherche en phytothérapie 17, 1-18.
Howes, M.R., Houghton, P.J., 2003. Les plantes utilisées dans
Chinois traditionnel et indien
médicaments pour améliorer la mémoire et la fonction cognitive. pharmacologie
Biochimie et comportement, vol. 75, 513-527).

Vacha, Sadgrantha

Plante médicinale; Une herbe aromatique et marécageuse avec un rampant robuste
et porte-greffe
En sanscrit, vaca signifie "parler".
On dit que les stimuli
expression et intelligence. ayurvédique Sarasvata choorna, quel est
contient de la vaca est couramment utilisé dans l'épilepsie, l'hystérie, etc. Maharishi Charaka
, ancien écrivain médical indien, avait attribué des propriétés exceptionnelles à
elle.

vacampu, vasambu Au cours de l'éclipse totale de 1955, visible au Sri Lanka
les astrologues ont même affirmé que boire un
la concoction "Vadhakaha" changerait la peau foncée de peau claire à claire
le teint.
D'où la chanson "Baila" "Bivva ne ~ da vadakaha sudiya ~».

image

Téléchargez la chanson électorale de 2010 écrite sur la mélodie de "vadhakaha sudiya"

Acronychia pedunculata Ankenda Gandha Rusa – Médicament: fractures, ulcères, purgatifs, gale
L'acrovestina, un principe cytotoxique, a été trouvé dans la tige et les racines.
Huiles ayurvédiques Des piranocumérines ont été isolées.
Populaire comme un bonsaï
plante ornementale. Actaea racemosa, Cimicifuga racemosa. Actée à grappes noires, serpent noir
Nom: Ranunculaceae
Imageur et écrire ? – – Principalement utilisé comme source d'herbes pour les médicaments utilisés pour soulager les bouffées de chaleur pendant
ménopause (un mélange de racines est également consommé). Il était un membre du XIXe siècle "composé végétal de Miss Pinkham pour les plaintes des femmes, etc."
Les extraits de plantes sont déclarés analgésiques, sédatifs et anti-inflammatoires.
Pas originaire du Sri Lanka. originaire des États-Unis. Adansonia digitata Baobab, arbre à bouteilles Aliya Gaha – – Un très grand arbre à l'écorce lisse, gris rosé;
feuilles alternes, palmées, à feuilles caduques.
Les baobabs trouvés à Mannar (Mannarama) sont une marque de fabrique. L'arbre est endémique à Madagascar et
Proche de l'Afrique. Les feuilles sont consommées comme légume. Le bois stocke l'eau pour faire face à la sécheresse. Adenanthera aglaosperma Alston Masmora?

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– –

classification

Référence: Adenanthera aglaosperma Alston (Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Peradeniya) 11: 204. 1929)
(= Adenanthera bicolor Moon ex Thwaites)

Adenanthera pavonina, Adenanthera microsperma Teijsm
(Perle rouge)
Madatiya, Madhatiya, kusandana Tilam, Manjadi Grand arbre Les graines rouges intenses sont similaires aux graines "Olinda". La graine "madetiya"
a été utilisé en médecine traditionnelle comme mesure de poids connue sous le nom manchaadi ou Madeta, comme le
les graines sont de taille assez régulière et ne sèchent pas en raison de la
coquille épaisse. En Angleterre, les graines d'orge ont été utilisées comme poids, avec 480 grains
être une once. Selon H. W. Codrington (pièces de monnaie et pièces de Ceylan, 1924), une "madeta"
ou manchaadi était environ 3,3-3,4 grains anglais, alors que Kalanda il avait 20 "madeta" ou "manchadis".
On utilise de l'huile, des feuilles, de l'écorce, des graines, etc.
dans les traitements traditionnels à base de plantes.
Cet arbre est parfois aussi connu sous le nom de "arbre de Sandlewood rouge", cependant,
le sandlewood est Pterocarpus santalinus (voir lettre P ci-dessous).
image

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Adenanthera pavonina


manjadi


Adhatoda vasica


adathodai
->

Adhatoda vasica, Adhatoda zeylanica, Justicia adhatoda
(Arbre Malabarnut, Pavatta)
Vang Aepala, Agaladara, Agalaadaara, Adathoda

L'ancien nom cinghalais "Vang Aepala" අපල
il est maintenant rarement utilisé. Agalaadaara est plus fréquent. Le formulaire Aadathoda, dérivé de
Le tamoul est également souvent utilisé. Dictionnaire du XIXe siècle par B. Clough, 680 citations Vang Aepala
ainsi que Agala Aadara main Aadathoda. Les noms "Sinhaasay" e
"Sinhamukhi" et "Sinha-parni" ont également été utilisés dans des textes médicaux cinghalais comme
les fleurs de cette plante sont comparées à la face d'un lion.

Vrasa, Vasaka Atatotai, Adatodai, Adadodai (Malayalam – Adalodakam)

C'est un arbuste dense à l'écorce jaunâtre; il atteint une hauteur de 1,2 à 2,4
mètres avec de nombreuses longues branches ascendantes. Les feuilles allongées de lancéolées sont
vert foncé et plus pâle en dessous. Les fleurs blanches (également rosées) sont rapidement denses
pointes axillaires. Les fruits sont en forme de prune.

Un alcaloïde quinazoline connu sous le nom de l-vascine (à savoir 1,2,3,9-tétrahydropyrrole (2,1-b) quinazoline-3-ol),
et d'autres alcaloïdes (l-vasicinone., desoxivasicina, mayonnaise, certains mineurs
les alcaloïdes c'est à dire. Vasicol, adhatodinine et vasicinolare) se trouvent dans les feuilles
et d'autres parties de la plante. Frasémocologiquement, l'activité de l-vascine
dans la dilatation des bronches c'est bien connu.

Herbe médicinale importante, utilisée pour soulager les rhumes à la poitrine, l'asthme bronchique, etc.
Une infusion de feuilles d'Adathoda, de gingembre et de miel ou des décoctions d'Agalaadaara
Katuvael batu (Solanum Jacquini), Elabatu (Solonum Indica), gingembre et Tipplili
(piper niger) sont également utilisés comme remèdes à la maison au Sri Lanka. Le produit est
vendu sous forme de sirop en Asie du Sud. Les grandes doses sont
prétendu mettre fin à la grossesse.
voir

Adiantum capillus-veneris, (fougère noire) Vaelvaenna, Walwenna, Walawenna Parna- – Plan de l'appartement commun à l'ouest. Pas originaire du Sri Lanka.
Utilisé comme plante médicinale (contre la toux), mais maintenant les fougères sont reconnues comme
éventuellement cancérigène et toxique. Utilisé à l'extérieur contre la morsure de serpent.

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Adhatoda zeylanica


pamatuva


Adhatoda zeylanica


atatotai


Adiantum incisum


mylekondai

->

Adina Cordifolia Kolon – Katampu mancal, kadambai Voir aussi Xanthochymus pictorius, Xanthocymus pictorius
concernant "Kolon gaha" et les fausses étymologies basées sur le respect
le toponyme "Colombo".
– Aechmea fasciata (bromelia, plante de l'urne) Mal Annasi (?) – – Les broméliacées sont un nom générique pour tout un groupe de plantes.
Tillandsia Sprengelian est un exemple de bromelia bien connu.
L'Aechmea fasciata est une plante très populaire similaire à l'ananas. Urbano
l'ornement ont
ils deviennent importants au Sri Lanka parce que leurs bases foliaires peuvent recueillir
l'eau, devenant un terrain fertile pour les moustiques. Les plantes ne sont pas indigènes
et le nom "mal annasi" peut être une invention récente de
maraîchers locaux. Il peut y avoir d'autres "noms sur le marché".
La capacité de la moitié environ des espèces à vivre épiphytiquement, c’est-à-dire
au-dessus des branches des arbres, de la mucoviscidose, des orchidées, cela leur permet d’obtenir plus de soleil.

L'ananas est le bromelia le plus commun. elle
il est inhabituel en ce qu’il est terrestre et produit le seul bromelia comestible connu de plus de 3000 espèces.
Utilisations médicinales revendiquées pour Bromeldads

Aechmea fasciata, images et écrits pour une broméliacée populaire
Aegiceras Corriculatum Heen Kadol – Vithilikanna par rapport aux mangroves Aegle Marmelos
(Fruit Beli)
Images et écriture

Un grand arbre avec une coquille de fruit contenant une pulpe jaune douce. Fleurs et tendres
les feuilles sont utilisées pour préparer la tisane. Les fruits aident à la digestion.
Beli est utilisé dans le Dashamoola Arishtaya.

Beli
බෙලි ShreePhal, Adhararuha, Sivadrumah, Tripatre

En Inde, l'arbre de Beli est déifié à Shiva et considéré comme sacré.

Kuvilam, Vilvam

Le nom du lieu "Beligala" est mentionné dans le Kadaimpotha
par: Journal de la section de Ceylan de la Royal Asiatic Soc., Volume 8, numéros 26-29
"La principauté de Beligala apparaît dans le Kadaimpoth, ou" vieux livres de la frontière ", parmi les
districts de la division Maaya ". Beligala a été incluse dans le 13
grands temples où le trésor Bodhi a été planté par Chulabhaya. Quand la relique de la dent était
apporté de Kothmale par Wijayabahu III (XIIIe siècle), après dissimulation pendant
à l'époque du Magha-Kalinga, la relique s'est rendue à dambadeniya (Jambudroni), puis à Beligala.
Le fameux Bhuvaneka Bahu Pirivena Probabaly existait ici. Le texte
Rajaratnaakaraya montre des détails historiques utiles qui complètent la
discussion dispersée dans les chroniques de Plai.

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Aegle Marmelos


vilvam
->

Aerva lanata Polpala, pol-kuduplala, pahanabaya, pusswenna – cirupilai, thengapookeerai Plante médicinale, diurétique pris comme tisane.
Graminée annuelle, haute de 60 à 75 cm, souvent ligneuse à la base; tige verte, érigée ou
prosterné, avec nombreux, mince, cylindrique, plus ou moins cotonneux, velu
les branches partent simples, alternantes, de 1,2-2,5 cm de long, 0,9-2,5 cm de large, ovales ou spatule-ovale-
effets de la pulpe sur la structure et la fonction des voies urinaires chez le rat, par HMDR> Herath et al, Cey. J. med. Sci., 2005.

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Aerva lanata


sirupeelai


Aerva tomentosa


Perum Pilai

->

Agave vera-cruz (Agave, plante du siècle)) Pathok-Hana Kantala- Alagai- –

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Aganosma cymosa


sellakkodi

->

Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat, Chick, Chèvre, Alouette;) Hulantala- – appakkoti Herbe commune, parfois utilisée en phytothérapie. Mais maintenant il est connu pour être dangereux
le foie et pourrait être toxique à d'autres égards. Ageratina Adenophora (Croton) et Ageratina Riparia Fleur de brume
Famille Asteraceae, Wiki
– – Activité larvicide rapportée dans des études sur le Tamil Nadu. Ce sont des espèces de mauvaises herbes qui ont envahi le Sri Lanka, en particulier. Knuckles etc.
Histoire et distribution de ….
Article de Lalith Gunasekera

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Aglaia elaeagnoidea

elaeagnoidea
chokkala


Aglaia elaeagnoidea

elaeagnoidea
chokla


Aglaia odoratissima


kannikkombu


Aglaia odoratissima


sokkalai

->

Roxburghian Aglaia Puwangu, Puvangu – cokkalai, kannikkompu Nom du lieu: Puvangudiva, puvangudoova, mentionné dans
Chroniques de Pali.
Morphologie: un arbre de taille moyenne ou grande (famille acajou) avec une
écorce orange grisâtre terne et jeunes parties recouvertes
petites écailles ferrugineuses; feuilles composées, en alternance,
extrapoler, penné, rachis ~ 5 cm de long. Un anti-inflammatoire.
Regarde aussi Myristica horsfieldia ,. De nombreuses espèces d'Aglaia sont similaires
et Aglaia odorata (fleur de riz de Chine) est parfois appelée "puvangu".
L'arbre dit "Mal-Karanda" (Millettia pinnata)
c'était peut-être aussi l'ancien "Puvangu". Agrostistachys Indica Agrostistachys hookeri
Arbuste ou arbre. Les feuilles étaient utilisées pour les paillotes. Cependant, l'arbre est devenu
presque éteint. Il figure dans la liste rouge de l’UICN en 2006.
L’agrostistachina, un composant cytotoxique de cette plante, a été qualifié de diterpinoïde rare du
classe de Casbane. Agents antitumoraux, dérivés de l'acide ellagique, etc.
sont à l'étude
des extraits de cette plante.

descriptions

Trois types de feuilles d'arbre Beru
on dit qu'ils se trouvent au Sri Lanka.

Le nom Agrostistachys ciricacea "a été répertorié dans une base de données Asie-Pacifique
mais nous ne savons pas ce que c'est –
Images et écriture botanique

Beru
Le nom est probablement prononcé avec un long "e", – Mancharei

Bien que le village de Beruwala fût
utilisé par les commerçants arabes, il n'y avait aucune tentative
génère ici un nom de lieu arabe ou tamilisé.

Nom Lieu: Il y a deux possibilités pour l'origine du nom:
(1) Le nom du petit village de pêcheurs de la côte sud-ouest appelé "Beruwala"
බේරුවල
c'est probable
de dire "le bosquet d’arbres Beru, à savoir Beru – vala", où "vala" signifie "vanaya" (et non pas de fosse)
en cinghalais.
Henry Yule (historien et géographe écossais du XIXe siècle) a utilisé le
Prénom Perivils pour le port de Beruwela. Le nom "Perivil" peut avoir été un
l'européanisation du nom cinghalais "Beru-vala", comme le changement de
B ↔ P,
ainsi que "vil & harr: vala" sont communs.

(2) Une étymologie du folklore indique que le nom dérive de "Be-ruvala", c'est-à-dire
"laisser la voile tomber", où il est dit que "Be" représente baanava, e ruvala c'est la voile.
Si cette étymologie doit être cohérente, le nom doit être "Baeruvala" –
බෑරුවල. Aussi, voiles
ils sont abaissés bien avant que le bateau atteigne la terre, et ce nom n'est pas
trouvé dans n'importe quel autre port de pêche
au Sri Lanka. Nous rejetons donc fortement cette étymologie.

histoire
D'après W. I. Suraweera (Sunday Observer, 2 août 1998),
ce village de pêcheurs a été l’un des premiers villages de commerçants arabes
au Sri Lanka. ainsi,
De John de
L’histoire de Marignolli (XIVe siècle) peut être déduite de Beruwala
les colons mori ont accepté.
Il a déclaré que l’administrateur de Perivills était Coya Jhan, apparemment le
nom d'un chef aux cheveux noirs. à partir de Sandesa on peut constater que des poèmes
Beruwala était un centre commercial de Moro au 15ème siècle avec beaucoup
palais et grands magasins. La mosquée Beruwala et le village ont été détruits par les Portugais.
Aujourd'hui, la région compte une population de musulmans, de catholiques et de bouddhistes cinghalais.
Article sur Beruwala dans le journal Island juin 2011

Beru-Kaetiya est un autre endroit associé à des noms Beru. "Kaetiya"
est un mot cinghalais standard qui signifie "agglomérat" ou "golla".

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Ailanthus excelsa


perumaram


Ailanthus excelsa


Naru

->

Alangium lamarkii, Alangium lamarkii, Grewia salvifolia.- Rib-Anguna1- Ankota. Dhalakura – Un petit arbre, utilisé en médecine autochtone pour
maladies de peau, fièvre de dysenterie, etc. Les feuilles ont été montrées
réduire l'inflammation.
Image et écriture Alangium salviifolium (feuille de sauge Alangium, cornouiller sauge) Rib-Anguna- Amkol alincil, sainkolam grand arbre épineux, –
Dans l'Ayurveda, les racines et les fruits sont utilisés contre les rhumatismes et les hémorroïdes. externe
utilisé pour le traitement des morsures d'animaux Alastonia scholaris- C.f., Alstonia scholaris (L.).
Echites scholaris L.
L'arbre du diable. Bois de pin
Images et écriture Ruk Attana – Sapta-Parni Elilaipalai, Mukam Palei, Palai, Palegaruda- Noms de lieux: Aettampana (Adampan)., Kok-aththana-kulama etc., Le nom
dans ces cas, il fait probablement référence à datura espèces. Rukattana est un grand
arbre, avec un exsudat blanc et des spirales de simples feuilles étroites et oblongues.
Le nom sanscrit peut être associé à la présence de spirales de feuilles. Albizia amer (arbre à tourteau) – Iha – Krishnasrirsh Vunja-

Images et écriture
– Lebbeck d'Albizia Mara, Maara, Sooriya Mara – bhandi, sirisah –

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Lebbeck d'Albizia


siridam
->

Albizia odoratissima Sooriya Mara, Albezia, Girizeeniya sirisa karuvagai Morphologie: un très grand arbre avec une écorce grise épaisse qui étend les branches e
parties jeunes pubescentes; feuilles alternes, composé bipenné, grand,
10-15 cm de long, pubescents avec une seule grosse glande sessile près de la base
et généralement l'une des bases de termi.
Cet arbre a acquis un sens dans Dendro applications de la bioénergie en tant que telle
il lève le soleil (sooriya) et se développe rapidement

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Albizia odoratissima


karuvakai


Albizia Procera


kovarakki


Albizia Procera


velvagai

->

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Aleurites Moluccana


woodooga


Aleurites Moluccana


nattakkarottu

->

Allamanda cathartica (trompette en or) Val Ruk Attana – Chashakapushpi – – Plante ornementale mais latex laiteux
c'est toxique. Bien qu’il prétende être brésilien, il est connu
Sanscrit.
image
– Allium ascalonicum (oignons rouges, échalotes)
Famille Liliaceae. Rathuloonu- Lasuna, rasona – Vellaippuntu- –

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Allium cepa


venkayam


Allium cepa


vengayam

->

Allium sativum (Ail) Suduloonu – – puntu, vellulli L'ail est un élément précieux dans une bonne cuisine.

On a prétendu que la consommation d'ail était réduite
tumeurs gastriques, intestinales et colorectales, abaisse la tension artérielle,
abaisse le cholestérol, etc., en particulier
partisans de la médecine alternative. L'image n'est pas sans équivoque, même s'il semble
être un test en faveur de ces déclarations.
Quelques études scientifiques
sur & # 39; ail
Allophylus cobbe, A. zeylanicus Kobbe, kobbae ගභ – Triputa- Amalai- Originaire du Sri Lanka. L'écorce est utilisée, pelée vers les racines,
pour
faire des bandages dans les traitements orthopédiques traditionnels.

Images et écriture.

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Allophylus serratus


amalai


Aloe Barbadensis


karralai


Aloe Barbadensis


Kumari
->

Alocasia indica, Alocasia macrorrhiza (Taro) Habarala – – – Les noms de lieux Habarana, Habaraduwa, Habarakada, Gala Haburu, Sabaragamuwa ils sont bien connus

Le nom "habarala" est utilisé vaguement en cinghalais
pour Colacasia et xanthosoma aussi les espèces.
Habarala est étymologiquement "Haburu ala". Le nom "Haburu" a tendance à être utilisé pour
"Gahala" interchangeable.
Une herbe robuste avec un vert vif, large, triangulaire-sagittate,
repousser légèrement les feuilles avec un signe central blanchâtre fortement marqué, fort,
nerfs secondaires pâles.
Les plantes d’Alocasia diffèrent de la colocasie car la tige de la feuille (pétiole) rejoint le limbe
l'entaille basale.
Dans Colocasia, le pétiole est fixé plus près du centre de la lame.

Certaines variétés de gahala sont comestibles si suffisamment bouillies
se débarrasser de l'hydrogencyanide qui est généré par le
Cyanogène contenu dans ces tubercules.
gingembre contient des composés analogues à la linamarase
capable de libérer de l'acide cyanhydrique
de glucoside (voir par exemple: Kodagoda N, Marcus V, Ambalavaner S. quelques-uns
observations sur la libération d'acide cyanhydrique
du manioc.
Actes des sessions annuelles
Association sri-lankaise pour l'avancement
of Science 1973; 1: 38.). Il est donc préférable d'éviter le gingembre
avec Manioc, Gahala, Habarala, Hondala et autres tubercules
contiennent des glucosides associés à des acides toxiques.

Cucullata alocasia
(Taro chinois, la main de Bouddha)
Panu-habarala – – – "Feuilles en forme de coeur; utilisées au Sri Lanka en médecine et comme plante ornementale.
image Alocasia macrorrhizos (taro géant, taro, oreille d'éléphant,
Oreille d'éléphant panachée verticale)
Nai Habarala, Habarala, Ali Habarala – Hastikarni – Parum sembu – Les feuilles peuvent atteindre trois mètres et
on dit que c'est la plus grande note non divisée, la plus grande-belle bigarrée
feuilles: utilisées uniquement en médecine indigène.
images

Images et notes

Alocasia macrorrhiza, taro géant, oreille d'éléphant géant, oreille d'éléphant droite, Pai

Alocasia alba est l’espèce la plus petite et la plus répandue au Sri Lanka. Alocasia sp.
(Taro chinois, la main de Bouddha)
Mapil-habarala – – – Une espèce médicinale, distincte d’une
tige de feuille tachetée, le nom vernaculaire est dit
dérivé du supposé
similitude de ce dernier avec le serpent "Mapila" (serpent chat Boiga ceylonensis, o
Boiga barnesii
).
Image Maspil habarala
Espèces d'aloès Vel Komarika
Vael Komarika
kirikawelu – – (voir aussi le dictionnaire de Clough)
Plante herbacée vivace à tige très courte, épaisse, cylindrique, simple et ligneuse
l'envoi de nombreux stolons à la base; racines fibreuses et charnues; ne pars pas
très nombreux, sessiles, densément peuplés sur la tige courte et larges, dilatés
bases, propagation ci-dessous.

La préparation la plus couramment utilisée de cette plante est le gel d’aloès, une viscose épaisse.
liquide trouvé à l'intérieur des feuilles. Les feuilles sont utilisées dans le
traitement des brûlures etc.
Voir Komarika

Aloe vera – littiralis Komarica, Komarika – – La pulpe de feuilles épaisses a des applications médicinales.
voir
Aloe Vera Images et revendications d'utilisation en médecine traditionnelle
Calcarata alpinia> Heen Araththa- – – Herbe médicinale utilisée en médecine cinghalaise.
Seee Arambawela et al.,
Journal d'ethnopharmacologie
Volume 95, numéros 2-3, décembre 2004, pages 311-316 Alpinia Galanga Maha Araththa, Arratta, Gandhanakuli (Clough P153),
Kaluwala (p114 de Clough) – arattai, perarattai Plante médicinale tubéreuse liée au curcuma. Alstonia macrophylla Havari Nuga – – Similaire à Ruk Atana (voir A. Scholaris) Alstonia scholaris, c.f., Alastonia S. (Pin de laitier, arbre du diable indien) Ruk Attana Saptaparna elilaippalai Grand arbre voir aussi ci-dessous datura
Attampana (Adampan), Attampanthala (Adampantalavu)
Podidompe (Sinnadampan)
Les graines sont hautement toxiques et altèrent la conscience.
L'écorce et le latex sont utilisés dans
médicaments à base de plantes. Alstonia venenata Midella raja-Adana sinnappalai, palamunnipalai – Alternanthera sessilis Mukunuwenna, Mukunuvaenna matsyaksaka Ponnankanni, Kotuppai Une herbe prostrée avec de nombreuses tiges sous-quadrangulaires glabres
15-60 cm de long.-
aliment précieux pour les feuilles de Sri Lanka, dans "Kola kaenda" (bouillon de feuilles) e
"Maellung" (salade cuite). Utilisations médicinales en phytothérapie.
Images et
écrire
Alysicarpus ovalifolius, A. vaginalis (argentine blanche, trèfle Alyce) Aswenna Aesvaenna
utilisé dans l'ayurveda – – Plante herbacée annuelle semi-ligneuse à nombreuses tiges longues de ~ 60 cm de long,
ascendant, ramifié, robuste, glabre, s'enracinant souvent à la base; les feuilles
alternes, à 1 feuillage, variables, longs ~ 1,2 cm, sur les pétioles environ un tiers
long, variable de linéaire-lancéolée.-

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Alternanthera sessilis


kotuppai


Alysicarpus monilifer


kacukkoti


Amaranthus gangeticus


cirukirai


Amaranthus gangeticus


Ciru Kirai


Amaranthus paniculatus


cakini3


Amaranthus paniculatus


Mulai-k-kirai


Amaranthus spinosus


mullukkirai


Amaranthus spinosus


mullikkirai
->

Amaranthus oleraceus, A-paniculatus, A-spinosus. Amarante Rouge Thampala – – – Voir Amaranto Tricolore pour la municipalité "Tampala".
A-paniculatus est une plante annuelle haute, environ 1,2 m de haut, robuste et rainurée.
et strié, sans poils
tiges légèrement pubescentes; feuilles simples et alternes, ~ 5 cm de long,
~ 2,5 cm de large, lancéolée elliptique, aiguë ou pointue, à base cunéiforme,
mince, nombreux nerfs.
A. Spinosus est beaucoup plus court, vert.
– Amaranthus polygonoides vaul Tampala- – – Une herbe prostrée et glabre, à nombreuses branches clairsemées; petites feuilles,
0,7 cm de long, 0,5 de large, obové ou obové-lancéolé
spatulé, obtus ou arrondi à l'apex, fortement apicolato. effilé au
petiole.- Amarante Amarante Thampala tanduliyah? cerikkirai, thandukkeerai

Palahena (Palachenai)
Palamotte (Palamoddai)
Thampalagama (Tampalakamam)
Les graines d'amarante rouge et la plante elle-même
ils étaient un aliment important dans
cultures anciennes. Ses gènes (Amarante Albumin 1, AmA1)
scientifiques indiens dans les pommes de terre, pour produire
pommes de terre transgéniques contenant entre 35 et 60 pour cent
plus de protéines que les pommes de terre non modifiées. Ils contiennent également
augmentation des niveaux d'acides aminés, en particulier de la lysine,
tyrosine et soufre, qui sont généralement limités dans les pommes de terre

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Amarante tricolore


thandukkeerai
->

Amaranthus viridis Koora Thampala tanduliyah kuppaikkirai, vakucakkirai –

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Amaranthus viridis


vakucakkirai


Ammannia baccifera


kallurivi


Ammannia baccifera


nirumelneruppu


Amoora Rohituka


semmaram


Amoora Rohituka


vellakongu

->

Amorphophallus campanulatus Bl.,
Amorphophallus paeonhifolius Dennst. (Éléphant avec pied d'éléphant, fleur de charogne, langue des diables) Kidaran, Kidaaran -කිඩාරං Surana karakarunai, boomi sallaraikilangu La plante est un aroid ou Arum,
c'est une plante familiale araceae;
avoir des petites fleurs empilées sur un spadix entouré
d'une grande spatule.

Il a des tubercules "ressemblant à Habarala" qui peuvent être mangés
si bien cuit.
Si cuit incorrectement, les tubercules
ils sont toxiques. Quand la plante fleurit, une odeur très désagréable
il est distribué, semblable à la charogne, et couvre les mouches
le club spadix avec leurs oeufs.

Images et écriture

image

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Amorphophallus campanulatus


boomi sallaraikilangu


Ampelocissus tomentosa


cirunaralai


Ampelocissus tomentosa


cirunaralai @
->

Ampelocissus indica – Rata Bawlath Vael, Le midda vael? – – – peinture-
Une vigne avec probabaly fruits toxiques (poison) contenant des oxalates. Anacardium occidentale (Noix de cajou) Kadju, Kaju kajutaka muntiri et andimangottai Rendu populaire par les Portugais, initialement comme
amélioration du sol. Anoectochilus setaceus Blume, Anaectochilus setaceus Vana raja mala, WanaRaja mala – – Orchidée de terre exceptionnelle, toujours présente dans le Sinharaja.
Christie Alwis: "de belles orchidées Amyrus agallocha Gugulu – – tipo di albero di balsamo, secondo il dizionario di Clough, p163;
anche il nome "gugulu" sembra essere stato usato per
murunga.

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Anacardium occidentale


andimangottai


Anagallis arvensis


culliver


Anagallis arvensis


nakamalli

->

Anamirta cocculus (bacche di veleno, bacche di pesce) Thiththawel: Thiththavael Anamurthi- kakkai-k-kolli, Nanju in malayalam – Un arbusto rampicante legnoso. I semi a forma di rene diventano rossi quando maturati.

È stato anche usato il nome "Cocculus indicu", in particolare per il seme.
I semi contengono 2 alcaloidi: menispermina e paramenisperme e il grasso
 dai semi contengono acidi palmitico, stearico, oleico e linoleico.
 Le sue foglie, semi e frutti sono usati nelle preparazioni ayurvediche.
I frutti sono amari e velenosi. Tuttavia, sono utilizzati in varie parti di
asia meridionale come astringente, espettorante, antimicotico, antielmintico e nel controllo dei pidocchi, della scabbia ecc.
Il seme in polvere viene utilizzato come veleno per pesci (nell&#39;India meridionale) e distrugge negativamente tutta la vita acquatica.
Causa tremore, convulsioni tetaniche negli animali e può persino uccidere il bestiame.
Immagine di climbe
Immagini aggiuntive Ananas comosus (ananas) Annnasi bahunetra, paravati anashap-pazham, poonthazham pazham Popolarizzato dai portoghesi. Originario dell&#39;Amazzonia con
il nome Tupi Nana
Tuttavia, alcuni scrittori singalesi hanno sostenuto che "Anna-asi"
deriva dalle parole "spada (asi) che taglia (digerisce)
il cibo (Anna) ". I nomi di frutti, piante ecc. Sono purtroppo
mai realisticamente originato da basi etimologiche così chiare!
Pinapple è una delle poche Bromeliacee in crescita e
è anche uno dei pochi membri fruttiferi di questo gruppo di
stabilimenti.
L&#39;ananas che contiene l&#39;enzima bromeliano è ben noto per le sue preziose proprietà digestive,
e nel controllo dell&#39;accumulo di purine nel sangue (formazione della gotta) ecc. Viene anche usato come a
batticarne.
Usi medicinali rivendicati per le Bromeldiadi

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Ananas comosus


Poonthazham Pazham


Ananas sativus


natcattirakantaki
->

Ananas sativus Annasi anannasa, ama annaci vedi Ananas comosus Anaphalis subdecurrense Maha Sudana – – –

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Andrographis echioides


gopuram langi


Andrographis echioides


gopuram tangi

->

Andrographis paniculata Heen Kohomba- – nilavembu, nilavempu vedi anche: Azadirachta indica Andropogon contortus Itana – kavattampul? un&#39;erba Andropogon muricatum Savandara, Saevaendara, Sawandara Birana (Pali), laamajjaka (Pali), Virana, Usira (sanscrito) – Erba profumata, citata in testi pali e sanscriti. Andropogon squarrosus saevandara – – un&#39;erba Angel mamelos, Angel marmelos see Aegle marmelos Beli – – -see Aegle marmelos Anisochilus carnosus Kapparavalli – karppuravalli Medicinal: Stimulants,Coughs,Expectorants Anisomeles indica – Yak Wanassa – – – –

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Anisomeles malabarica


peruntumpai


Anisomeles malabarica


peymarutti
->

Anisophyllea cinnamomoides – Welipiyan, Vaelipiyan- – – found in swamp forests, connected to the
mangrove family- Annona Muricata
(sour-sop, custard apple) Katu Anoda,,Anona, Katu-Aaththa, Katu-anoda
The name Katu-Aaththa is closely related to the
Bengali name Aththa, also used in Portuguese. The Tamil name is
clearly derived from the Sanskrit. Note that these names are used indiscriminately
for Annona Muricata and Annona squamosa which is very similar (squamosa is
correctly Vaeli Aththa, while muricata is Katu-Anoda or Katu-Aaththa)
This is a well-known Sri lankan fruit with a very special falvour, due to
the presence of various aliphatic esters which may be
useful in food flavoring (2-hexenoic acid methyl ester 23.9%
is dominant; Jirovetz et al.,J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46 (9), pp 37193-720 ).

 The tree is small and fast-growing. The skin of the
rather large fruit is thin and is covered with conical nibs. The white, pulpy
flesh, which contains juice, is peppered with small shiny, black inedible
seeds, and has a pleasant, sweet-acidic taste. As it is rather fibrous, its
squeezed juice makes a better choice, and has, in fact become more popular than
the fresh fruit as such. Soursop has few seedless varieties, but they are
rare. sitaphal- Seetha palam Claimed
 medicinal benefits of Sour soup.
. Its use as an anti-cancer agent
 (cyto-toxitc agent) has been tauted in the internet. However, we have found no reports of
 double-blind in vivo human experiments in reputed journals.
 Cytotoxic acetogenins have been reported for in vitro studies:
 F-R Change et al, J. Nat. Prod., 2001, 64 (7), pp 925-931
Reports such as the following may be found on the internet:
An interesting in vivo study was published in March of 2002 by researchers
  in Japan, who were studying various acetogenins found in several species of
  plants. They inoculated mice with lung cancer cells. One third received
  nothing (the control group), one third received the chemotherapy drug
  adriamycin, and one third received the main graviola acetogenin, annonacin
  (at a dosage of 10 mg/kg). At the end of two weeks, five of the six in the
  untreated control group were still alive and lung tumor sizes were then
  measured. The adriamycin group showed a 54.6% reduction of tumor mass over
  the control group-but 50% of the animals had died from toxicity (three
  of six). The mice receiving annonacin were all still alive, and the tumors
  were inhibited by 57.9% -slightly better than adriamycin and without
  toxicity. This led the researchers to summarize; "This suggested that
  annonacin was less toxic in mice. On considering the antitumor activity and
  toxicity, annonacin might be used as a lead to develop a potential anticancer
  agent."
. See also anecdotal reports on
  anti-cancer activity in Katupila. However, Katupila
  is not the same
   as Katu-Anonda (Anona Muricata) We identify
Katupila avec
   Fluegea Leucopyrus (Euphorbiaceae) Annona reticulata Vaeli Anoda lavani- aninuna, manilayatta –

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Annona reticulata


manilayatta
->

Annona squamosa vaeli-Aththa, Anona sitaphala atta, sitapalam – Anoectochilus setceus (Orchid) Wana Raja, Vana raaaja – – – Anogeissus latifolia Dawu, Davu – – namai,vekkali A small or medium-sized tree with an erect trunk, very smooth whitish-grey
bark and glabrous young parts; leaves simple, alternate or subopposite without
stipules.-

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Anthocephalus cadamba


katampu


Anthocephalus cadamba


arattam

->

Antiaris toxicaria Riti gaha – nettavil A tall evergreen tree about 40-45 m tall with a straight, trunk buttressed at
the base and vertically panelled, mottled black and white bark; leaves simple,
alternate, 10-20 cm long, oblong or oval-oblong, acuminate, mucronate,
cuspidate, subcaudate, entire.- Anthurium andraeanum; Araceae (arum family) Anthurium – – 800 odd species, Introduced to Sri Lanka, by horticulturalists, as it is an
important component of the cut-flower industry. ERach plant yields 4-6 flowers per year.
 It is a "Habarala"-like plant with
glossy leaves. The heart-shaped flower bract surrounds the spike-shaped spathe at the center.  
Images and short write up
Antidesma montanum,Antidesma pubescens
IUCN redlisted Karawala-kabella, Kaeballa
il est Antidesma thwaitesianum – peyicci

il est Antidesma menasu Bot. champion Asclepias eriocarpa, (Monarch milkweed) Varaa, Wara
is a sinhala generic name for varieties of Asclepias,
and also sometimes for Calotropis varaieties – –
Asclepias eriocarpa also an ornamental plant,
or grown in gardens to attract Monarch butterflies Aponogeton crispus, Aponogeton natans Kekatiya
Aponogeton jacobsenii, A. rigidifolius are also known as "Kekatiya",
and regarded as threatened species (IUCN red list).

ke-kaetti, and kotti are also used, esp. in Tamil speaking areas. – – Kotti
This word may be derived from the Prakrit form Kaeti, where "kaeti" means cluster
in sinhala. A submerged, fresh-water herb with a tuberous, subspherical, stoloniferous
rootstock, leaves long-petioled. –
makes one white flower.
Kekatiya images etc

See also closely related (or equivalent) aquatic plant:

Aponogeton monostachyum

See name resolutions at
The plant List -Aporosa lindleyana Kebella, Kaebaella,Kaebella, Kabella – Kodali, Vettikan, Vettil, Vittil, Vitti Place names
Keballa,
Kebellakumbura
Kebedduwa
Kebellaketiya
Kebiliyapola, Kebellewela
Kebellagoda
Kebellagodawela
Kebellawita

Kebella-agare
Kebellawita
Kebellawitagama
Kebellegama

Kodalikallu (Kaebellagala)
Kodalikkallu
Kodaliparichchan (Kaebella-pirihena, කැබෙල්ලපිරිහේන)
Kodarikulama,
etc.

Scepa lindleyana Wt.
is synonymous. Large tree with smooth bark, with simple, alternate leaves.,
Flowers unisexual, dioecious; male flowers in axillary catkins; female flowers in condensed cymes.
Root and bark extracts, crushed leaves etc., are used as anti-infectious medications,
analgesics in alternative medicine. Antioxidant activity in root extract has been reported.
It is used as a prop. in betel (Piper betel L.) plantations.

Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. (Agar wood) Aegila (?) Kalani-niryaasa (Sanskrit name of the resin)- – Used in perfume products as the wood resin is valued- Aranthera Bartha Braga (Scorpion orchid) Gonusu mal – – Common orchid in SL.
See orchids Arbus pecatorius Gajaparaka, Gajaparaaka, Olinda – – Plant bearing red seeds, with a black mark, very similar to Olinda

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Arachis hypogaea


verkkatalai


Arachis hypogaea


nilakkatalai

->

Ardisia humilis – Balu Dan – – – –

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Ardisia solanacea


manipudbam

->

Areca catechu Puwak, Puvak puga, kramuka kamugu, pakku – Areca concinna (Thw.)– Len taeri, Len-teri – – – Species native to Sri Lanka, related to the famous Betel Nut palm,
and threatened by habitat loss. (IUCN red list)
The best-known member of the genus is A. catechu, (the arecanut palm). Several
types of Areca nuts, known for their stimulating and tangy taste, are
 used for chewing, especially in combination with the leaves of Betels.

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Areca catechu


pakku


Arenga wightii


alam panei


Arenga wightii


alampanai


Argemone mexicana


kudiyotti


Argemone mexicana


kutiyotti

->

Argyreia nervosa, Argyreia populifolia (Elephant creeper,Woolly Morning Glory. )
Family: Convolvulaceae
Girithilla samudraphalaka, vriddadaru, Vidhara, murva,- kakkatan, katar-palai, samuttira-p-pala

Images and write up
Its use in traditional medicine in Sri lanka is reported in "Lanka Chronicle" as:
"Various parts of the plant, including the latex, are used externally on the gums and
wounds. The root of this pounded and boiled in coconut milk applied with excellent results to
inflammation or swelling after dog bite. It is used also in cases of mad dog bites in
order to prevent hydrophobia." The plant is specific and native to Sri Lanka.

It is classified as a schedule III depressant by the DEA (US drug enforcement administration),
 although the substance has hallucinogenic/psychedelic properties.
 and the sale of seeds is banned or controlled.

Arisaema leschenaultii – Wal Kidaeam Val Kidaeam, Val Kidaram-
Arisaema constrictum (Barnes) is said to be "Ati-udayang" – – Monoecious or dioecious, luberous herb, tuber globose, about 5 cm diameter
roots from the upper side of the tuber stem about 15 cm long, clothed with long
mottled sheaths; leaf solitary ; petiole stout. 30-60 cm long, pale green.
mottled and handed with red.-

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Aristida setacea


ukam


Aristida setacea


thudappampillu

->

Aristolochia bracteata sapunda species? – atutintappalai Aristocholia plants are carcinogenic. Aristolochia bracteata Sapunda species? – pankampalai Aristocholia plants are carcinogenic. Aristolochia indica (Indian Birthwort) Sapunda, Sapsunda, Sapasanda Ishwari, Ahigandha – perumaruntu, Perularundu It is a creeper plant found in Sri lanka and South India, and grows on host trees..
Used in herbal medicine, e.g., to
Attenuate fever,and as an emmenogouge, although it is believed to
have carcinogenicity, contains aristolochic acid which is highly nephrotoxic.
Is sapunda dangerous?
It has been claimed that Stephania tetranda should be used in herbal preparations
instead of Aristolchia fanghi or A. Indica.

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Aristolochia indica


adagam

->

Artabotrys hexapetalus Yakada-wel, Yakada Vael – manoranjitham, tiga-sampangi Threatened species. Artanema longifolium – Gas Kotala, Gas Kethala – machipatchai ?- –

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Artemisia indica


machipatchai

->

Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood)
Image Naagadamana, Naga Damana (?)
The name "naaga damana" may indicate that the juice of this plant, when thrown at a snake,
   makes the snake slow and weak (we have no confirmation or rebuttal of this). – Makkippu Sometimes as a weed, it is a highly aromatic ornamental shrub. It is a much branched, glabrous,
 sweetly aromatic annual plant which may grows to a height of
  about 2 meters.The leaves are bi- or tri- pinnatified, linear to lanceolate.
   The flowers are yellow, appear in loose pinnacles.
Images and write up
Used in traditional Indo-Asian medicine in infusions etc., and believed to reduce fever, and
even act as an anti-malarial medication (esp. against Plasmodium falciparum malaria). It is well known in Chinese traditional medicine as Qinghaosu
The plant contains an essential oil Artemisinin (a sesqiterpenelactone), and flavanoids. Artemisia moderaspatana,
 Grangea maderaspatana, Perdicium tomentosum (Madras carpet)
Mastharu, Masipathri- –

Regarded as a weed,  
Images and write up
Used in traditional Indo-Asian medicine as a
 stomach ant-spasmodic, in infusions etc.

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Artemisia vulgaris


macippattiri


Artemisia vulgaris


tirunama
->

Artocarpus Altilis Dell – palavu, Palaa, pila There are many species of breadfruit. Loro sono
hybrids of Artocarpus Altilis and Artocarpus mariannensis. Artocarpus mariannensis Wal Dell ? – palavu, Palaa, pila ? There are many species of breadfruit. Loro sono
hybrids of Artocarpus Altilis and Artocarpus mariannensis.
read about varieties of bread fruit

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Artocarpus heterophyllus
Kos

palavu, Palaa

->

Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jack fruit) Herali, Kos, Vaela Panasam pila, pala, Palavu The Mayalam Chakka is believed to be the
origin of the English name.7nbsp;
Image and write up
It is claimed that "Vaeli kos aeta", (seeds) are good for diabetes – anecdotal
sources only. Pols ambul, Kalupol maelluma are preparations using
unripe Jack used as a vegetable. Atu kos, i.e., jack dried on the hearth
("Atuva") is smoked, shredded jack fruit
which may be used in curry, or make into deserts with sugar syrup.
The timber is highly valued. "Vaela" is the sinhlala name, some times
used for a variety of "kos", but
mostly use for the ripe, sweet stage of Kos. "Herali" is mostly used
for the uripe stage of the fruit. We have no information on the origin
of the sinhala word "Kos"
(note, Assamese and Bengali: name: Kothal, Kathal, Thai: Kahnoon ),
it may have originated from Kothal →. Koth → Kos . Artocarpus Indica Varaka muraja-phala muracapalam, Varukkai –

<! –Artocarpus lakoocha


irappala


Artocarpus lakoocha


tinippalavu


Arum colocasia


ceppankilanku


Arum colocasia


chembu
->

Arundina graminifolia Udawediya Mal, Udavaediya Mal – – – Asparagus gonoclados Hathavariya, Hathaavaariya, Hathawariya, Hathawaariya, Saathamul shatavari thanneervittan kizhangu, Sirumal see below, Asparagus racemosus Asparagus officinalis Asparagus Hathavariya, aesparagas, aspara-goba
This is the common vegetable, available in the spring. A good account
is found in the Wikipedia. This is
not native to Sri Lanka. Shatavari, Shooksmapatra catavari, thanneervittan kizhangu, Sirumal The young shoot is eaten lightly steamed or gently cooked, and contains antioxidants,
potassium, folates, and vitamins, fiber etc. The medicinal qualities attributed to
wild asparagus (see below) have been claimed for culinary
asparagus as well. The juice of the root is used in Ayurvedic medicine
(Narayana Taila, satamulyadi lauha, satavari Ghrita in India). Asparagus racemosus (wild asparagus, sparrow grass) Haathavariya, Hathaavaariya, Hathawariya, Hathawaariya, Saathamul, Hathamul satavari, shatavari, shathamulya catavari, kilavari, Sandavari. Other names (liliaceae family) are:
Asparagus Sarmentosus, Asparagus Gonoclados, Asparagus Adscendens
Used in traditional medicine, esp. for unrinary problems,
menopausal symptoms and increases of lactation,
and other "feminine problems". Claims have been made that
asparagus helps to reduce the risk of cancer and even AIDS.
It is also claimed to reduce the tendency for gout, kidney stones etc.

Image and write up

As usual, no adequate
double-blind experiments are available in most cases and
hence these claims remain unsubstantiated. However, asparagus is a
common food and hence it can be used very safely. Aspidium viviparum Ganga-meevana, Gangameevana – – Place name Meevanna also exists.

A species of shield fern.

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Asparagi racemosus


kilavari


Asteracantha longifolia


neermulliver
->

Asteracantha longifolia, (Hydrophila auriculata, Hygrophilia spinosa) Ikiriya, Katu-Ikiriya, Neeramulliya, kokila kokilaksa nirmulli Diuretic, native remedy for kidney stones,

HerbalTeas


A perennial herb with an ascending rhizome ; stems numerous, 60-120 cm
tall, erect, nearly unbranched, somewhat compressed, thickened at nodes and
hispid with long hair between nodes leaves simple. sessile. whorled.- Asystasia coromandeliana, Asystasia gangetica
(Creeping foxglove, Chinese violet, Asystasia)
nil-puruk (?)
However, see also under Ruellia – medday keerai, peyppatchotti Several related species: A. variabilis (Nees). A. chelonoides Nees
Woody perrenial.
Images Atalantia monophylla Wal Dehi, Val dehi- – kurundu There is also a variety known as "Gadaa dehi", with a rough skin,
known as Kaffre lime.

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Atalantia racemosa


kattu-k-kolinci


Atalantia racemosa


kattukkolunci 1
->

Atalantia ceylanica A. zeylanica- Yakinaran, yak-naaran –

Atalantia rotundifolia (Thw.) Tanaka is also listed as Yakinaran-

Citrus collection – Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) visa-batuvael ? – – This well-known source of atropine alkaloids
does NOT seem to have an accepted Sinhala (Visa batu vael ?-
a name touted by a planter but we have found no basis.)
or Tamil name. Perhaps only habitats in the
up-country dry zone would support this plant which does
not seem to be natively known in Sri Lanka.

Its
poison was used since antiquity
as a death portion, or for inducing hallucinations.
The plant (small berries on a wine, with flowers very similar to
the flower of egg plant) is in the aubergine, tomato and potato family
In India it is
found mainly in regions like Kashmir. It is known under various names in
Northern India : bantamaku, sag-angur, yebrui, girbuti.
It is a strong narcotic, sedative, diuretic, hallucinogen. Austroeupatorium Inulifolium, Eupatorium inulifolium Kunth

Daisy family
Siam weed, crofton weed.
Image of Eupatorium inulifolium
Eupatorum Odoratum from Waellavaya, Ella
Sudda, සුද්ද Valsudda
Not to be confused with vathusudda, Wathusudda or Watusudda (Ervatamia divaricata). – – Family: Asteraceae.
Austroeupatorium inulifolium is an aggressive species that rapidly
 colonizes areas cleared for planting new crops, agricultural fields,
 fallow fields, waste lands and roadsides. This was introduced it to
Sumatran rubber plants. It has been introduced to Sri lanka in the 1930s.
Write up and Image, Lalith Gunasekera

Antifunfals have been isolated from E. riparium by Bandara et al.

Averrhoa Bilimbi Bilin – – Origin in the Malayan region, perhaps endemic
to Sri lanka as well- Tree has small fruit used in chutneys and "Biling Achchcaru" etc.
Images, write up Avicennia marina, A. officinalis (Mangrove) Manda – Kanna – Azadirachta indica (Margosa)
Family: Meliaceae (mahogany family) Kohomba

It is medicinally and ritualistically important in
Sri Lankan culture. "Kohomba Kankaariya" is a well-known low-country
exorcist ritual dance. The Kohomba Kankariya begins with an invocation to
 the deity of the Kohomba tree, and NOT to the Buddhist &#39;Tun Sarana&#39;
 as in most other Sri Lankan exorcism dances.

Sinhalese homes
make "Milk rice", to be eaten with jaggary, during the
Sinhala new year (Bak masa ulela). The "Kohomba" leaves
are crushed and applied on
the body at an "auspicious" time, but not eaten.

Pakvakrita, nimbaka, nimba-

Images and write up from "Flowers of India

vempu, vembu, veppa

"Pachchadi" is a "sambol" (savoury spicy mixture) made
of the flowers of Margosa, the sour mango, and sweet jaggery.
Sweet rice (made with new red rice, jaggery, cashew nuts ghee,
 and plums) was eaten together with this sambol during
Sinhala-Tamil new year (Hindu homes).

Some place-names with Kohomba-
Aratikohombe (Aladiwembu)
Maha-Vaedi-Kohombe (Mavidivembu)
Kohombagamathota (Kombanachchi)
Kohombaweva (Veppankulam)
Kohombavaella (Veppanveli)

Lire
"About Kohomba"
.

Neem extract is an eco-friendly insecticide and pesticide. It is manufactured
in India and other S. Asian countries.
As far as we are aware, in Sri Lanka, Kohomba extract is
manufactured and distributed mainly by
la Island Marketing Services (pvt), Nawala, Sri Lanka

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Azadirachta indica


veppa


Azima tetracantha


kuncitamiyacceti


Azima tetracantha


ichanka
->

Azolla pinnata,(Mosquito Fern, Duckweed fern, Water fern, Fairy moss) pas-penda, kaerli penda? කැරලි
පෙඳ   පස් පෙඳ Pasubhojya, Plavini – Azolla filiculoides, Azolla caroliniana, Azolla anabena are related species of
agricultural importance. It has been used in south asia for a
long time in rice-paddy cultivation as a manure (bio-fertilizer).
 Its manure action is
related to its N-producing nodules and symbiosis with green algae
(cyanobacterium Anabaena), and in
making compost. It is also used as a cattle feed.

Images and notes

Efforts to use azolla in Tamil Nadu

Regulation of nitrogenase activity by light in the azolla-anabaena symbiosis by S. A. Kulasooriya et al., Peradeniya Botany dept.

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes Baccurea mottleyana (Rambi) Gaduguda – – The plant (Rambi) probabaly originated in Java – Indonesia.
The fruit is eaten raw, consumed as juice or jelly etc.
The plant has been studied within
a Sri Lankan context by Pushpakumara and H. M. P. Gunasena"

under-utilized fruit plants

Pictures of fruit

RE:
The book " A Selection of Fruits of Sri Lanka by J. and T. Fernando 1997"

Medicinal: fruit is used in dermatology. Bacopa Monnieri Lunuvila, Lunuwila Brahami pirami, piramiyam, carumam Place names:
Lunuvilaweva (Panemiyankulam);
Medicinal: Aperients, Diuretic.

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Bacopa Monnieri
Lunivila

carumam


Balanites aegyptiaca


toruvattu


Balanites aegyptiaca


nanjundan


Balanites roxburghii


nanchundan


Balanites roxburghii


nancuntan
->

Balanocarpus brevipetiolaris (Thw.) Alston
,br>
synonyme
Shorea brevipetiolaris Dunmala – – Threatened IUCN list.
Regarde aussi Balanocarpus kitulgallensis (Kosterm} Balanophora fungosa Thippili – yanai, thippali – Baliospermum montanum Deththa – Danthi – peyamanakku Has been used in indian medicine. e.g., one prescription (clear;y
toxic in view of modern knowledge) says:
Naraaccha rasa.1 Take of mercury, borax and black pepper, one part each,
sulphur, ginger and long pepper two parts each, seeds of Baliospermum montanum
nine parts; powder the ingredients and make into two-grain pills with water.
These are given in constipation and tympanites.
(source Hindu-materia
Medica) Ballota disticha Heen Yak-wanassa
mint-like plant – – Burman, Johannes, Thesaurus zeylanicus, t. 71 (1737)
Image

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Baliospermum montanum


maniyamanakkucceti


Bambusa arundinacea


munkil


Bambusa arundinacea


mulai

->

Bambusa vulgaris (Bamboo) Una, උන   unabambu,
උනබම්බු Vamsah, Venuh- Mulmankil Bambo is a fast-growing, prennial woody grass. It is a part of South Indian
culture, with the Bamboo flute figuring early in Sanskrit works. The name "Una"
appears in many Sri lankan place names like "Una-Pandura", "Unagalla, Unapaana".

It is of immense
economic importance but it has been extremely under exploited in
Sri Lanka.
See
Kariyawasam on bamboo utilization

Much can be learnt from the way Bamboo is used in China, Japan
 and in India. It is used: (i)To prevent soil erosion on hillsides and as a
 wind barrier(ii)Earth-quake resistant buildings (iii)Wood for furniture, fuel,
 poles, scaffolding, pulp, paper, composite planks, fabric, curtains, match sticks,
  incense sticks etc.
  (iii)Bamboo shoots are used as
 food. (iv)As a "Dendro" bio-fuel since bambo re-grows fast.  
 India&#39;s National bamboo mission
The young shoots of the tree are claimed to b be useful in stomach disorders.
  Pickled or cooked, they serve as an appetizer. In many parts of India
  the leaves of the tree are used in the from of decoction to treat diarrhoea,
  worms etc. Bamboo sticks are used in massage therapy.
See also Bata lee
Barleria L Sinhala /Tamil names everal of these woody perrenials, shrubs,have
not been identified. They are often known as "katu-kurundu". – – Some Barleria species:
B. involucrata Nees, B. lanceata (Forssk). {= B. noctzpora L.},
 B. nitida Nees, tB. nutans Nees,
see below for others. Barleria buxifolia (Box-leaved Barleria) katu-nelu, katu nelu Iksura kattimullu This plant (Acanthaceae) is mentioned in B. Clough&#39;s dictionary
Box-Leaved Barleria is a shrub 5-6 ft tall, with strong spines under the leaves.
Leaves are nearly stalkless, with hairs on both sides scattered, white, short. Spines below the leaves are 6-6 mm long, simple and straight. Flowers arise mostly solitary, purple blue. Bracts are 6-8 mm long, reduced to simple spines. Flower-tube is 1.8–2.5 cm long, slightly widened upwards.
Images and notes Barleria cristata
(Philippine violet , Bluebell barleria or Crested Philippine violet) Godame~riya – nilamparam, udamulli Shrub.
different parts of Barleria Cristata have been used traditionally for the treatment of variety of diseases including anaemia, toothache, cough and as a hypoglycemic agent. Roots and leaves were used to reduce swellings in inflammation.
Images and details of the plant
Today it is&#39;used in landscaping because of its attractive blue
to white flowers, although it has the risk of becoming a weed.
 It grows best at heights of 1000 meters. Barleria lupulina – Ranvan Katukarandu – – – – Barleria prionitis -(Porcupine flower, Barleria ) Katu Kurandu, Katukarandu – Vajradanthi Kundan, cemmulli, Varamulli – A small shrub, ~0.6-1 m tall, much branched, branches cylindrical,
swollen above nodes labrous with sle er, very sharp spines in leaf axils, each
with 3-ivaricate branches leaves simple.
It is claimed to have medicinal properties similar to "Aaadathoda".

Images and write up

The flower may be deep yellow to very pale yellow or whitish. Barleria mysorensis Roth katu-nelu- – ikkiri, kikkiri, kirimulla Small dry-zone shrub

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Barleria prionitis


cemmulli

->

Barringtonia acutangula – Ela Midella, Diya Midella – – – – Barringtonia asiatica Midella – – –

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Barringtonia acutangula


cenkatampu


Barringtonia acutangula


kadappai
->

Basella alba (Ceylon spinach, Malabar nightshade), c.f., Brassica alba Nivithi, Niwithi, Gam nivithi upodika venpacali, sivappu vasalakkirai, pasali Niwiitigala of the Sabaragamuwa province is a place name with
"Nivithi".
A slender climbing
perennial, with succulent stems and leaves, which may be used as
a potherb or spinach, for which they are a good substitute. vous
often cultivated in the low-country. Propagated by seed sown during the rains,
preferably in rows, sticks being provided for support to the vines.-

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Basilicum polystachyon


lolekam
->

Bassia latifolia, B. longifolia, Madhuca loggifolia
(Honey tree) Mee, Madupa Madhupa iluppai, kattu iluppai Ranmeeweva (Irana-illupaikulam), Madhupahena (Illupayadichenai)
Meepathota (Illupaikadavi)
see Madhuca longifolia
Bassia Nerifolia is "Gang-mee".

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Bauhinia malabarica


vattatti


Bauhinia malabarica


makutavattimaram


Bauhinia purpurea


mandarai


Bauhinia purpurea


mantarai
->

Bauhinia racemosa Maila anupushpaka- svetakanchana atti, vellai mantarai Mahilaweva (Mahilankulam)
Mahiyapitiya (Mahiyapitti)
Mahilataenna (Mylanthanai)
Maligaspitiya (Mayilagasthidar)
Vakulavaedda (Makilavettuvan)
Maligaspe (Mailakaspai)
A small tree with a thick, knotted trunk, much branched, bark blackish, very
rough and much furrowed; leaves simple, alternate, small, conduplicate,
3.1-3.7 cm long, broader than long, truncate at base, cut 1/3 down into two
broadly oval, rounded lobes.

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Bauhinia racemosa


vellai mantarai
->

Bauhinia tomentosa (Yellow orchid tree) Petan, Kaha Penath asmantaka- kattatti,tiruvatti

Images and write up

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Bauhinia tomentosa


tiruvatti


Bauhinia variegata


segappumanchori
->

Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony, Orchid tree) Koboleela Raktha Kanchana segappumandrai, tiruvatti Used for reforstation, wood board, production of gums and fibers, and
also in alternative medicine where a decoction of the bark etc. is used..
Review Benincasa hispida Alu Puhul Rasaksa ? Poosani, Pusalikkai, Vaidyakumbalam

Puhulvaella (Pullawali)
Pulmoddai (Puhulmotte)
Puhuleliya (Puloli) Begonia cordifolia Gal Ebala – – – Begonia malabarica Maha Hakabala (Mal) – – – Begonia suave-oleans Kumburu wel, Kumburu Vael – – creeper with a trumpet-like flower Begonia tenera (Dry) Bim-hakambala – – Threatened creeper, IUCN red list Berberis ceylanica Schnei. (barberry) Suvana, Daruharida Daruharidhra – Shrub up to 3 m tall, yellow flowered. Found up country.
A "kasaaya" (decoction) made of the bark is used as a purge by estate workers.
The fruits may be eaten. The bark is a valuable source of Tannin in India. Berrya cordifolia Halmilla
Timber tree – Chamndalai, Chavandalai, Kambamaram ToponymsHalmillavatta (Camulaiyativattai) Biophytum sensitivum
Images and write up
wood-sorrel family, sensitive plant. Gas nidikumba Jhullipuspa, Lajjaluka, Panktipatra, Pitapushpa, Vipareetalajjaalu tintanali, nilzccurunki One of the ten flowers (`dasha-pushpam&#39;)
 of aurveda and sidha medical systems of south-asia Bignonia salina Lunu Madala – – Mentioned by Charles Pridham

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Biophytum sensitivum


nilaccurunki
->

Birixa orilana Ratakaha karachhada- varagumanjal, mantiravanci Medicinal applications.

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Bischofia javanica


milachityan


Bischofia javanica


thondi


Bixa orellana


varagumanjal


Bixa orellana


mantiravanci

->

Blepharis repens – Samadana – – – A slender, perennial herb with prostrate, hispid-hairy, slightly branched,
 wiry stems; lea sessile, in a whorl, two of each whorl larger than others, oblong,
0.8-1.5 cm long, 0.3 cm broad, obtuse or rounded at apex, glabrous or
slightly scabrid, fleshy and pale.- Blumea balsamifera (Ngai Camphor)
Family: Asteraceae (sunflower family)
– kapuru -? Kukundara; Kukkura-dru- – The plant is a strongly aromatic (camphor-like) herb that grows tall and erect. Its height ranges from 1.5 to 3 meters, with stems that grow for up to 2.5 centimeters. It is an anti-urolithiasis and work as a diuretic. It is used in alternative medicine for kidney disorders.- Blumea mills
Family: Asteraceae Kukura, kapuru –
Blumea pictures – – A camphor source. An annual herb (aromatic) with an erect stem ~30 cm high, branched above.- Blumea lacera (Kakaronda)
Asteraceae (Sunflower family) "Kukundara" is a name used by sinhalese ayurvedic practitioners. -Kukkuradru, Kukundara kattumullangi Images and write up

Its hot pugngent (turpentine/camphor-like) ordor is used to drive away flies etc, and
the plant is used in local medications.

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Blumea lacera


catakkinam

->

Boerhavia diffusa (pg weed) Pita sudu sarana, Saarana – mukkirattai The leaf is used in "maellung" (cooked salad).

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Boerhavia diffusa


mukkurattai


Boerhavia repanda


varakanpuntu
->
Bombax ceiba Katu-Imbul, Pulun Imbul Shalmali, purani- mullilavu, ilavu See: Ceiba pentandra Bombax malabaricum Katu Imbul mahavriksha ? purani, mullilavu, Poolai Imbul weva (Ilavankulam)
Pulunkaduva (Poolaakkaadu)

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Bombax malabaricum


mullilavu

->

Borassus flabellifer Tal gaha – panai – Borayo Zylanica (borago) Yon-thumba, Yon thumba – – A small plant, sometimes referred to as Sithadrona en
sinhala medicinal texts.

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Borassus flabellifer


karumpanai


Borreria hispida


nattaichuri


Borreria hispida


nathai choori


Boswellia glabra


dhupam

->

Boswellia serrata
(Indian Olibanum tree) Salake, Galaba Gaha ?, Gajapriya glabra, Shallaksi vellai kunkiliyam, muraiyidam, muruntapali, Sambrani Maram A deciduous, medium-sized tree with an ash-coloured, papery bark which peels off in
thin flakes; young shoots and leaves pubescent ; leaves alternate, crowded at the ends
of branches.- The name Gajapriya is given in Clough&#39;s 1892 dictionary. The name
Shallaki is used in Indian preparations. Salake is claimed to be
the Sinhala name. According to Prof. S.P. Samarakoon, (Ruhuna University),
le nom Salake is in the List of Vernacular names given in the Journal of Sri Lanka Forester.
Preparations from this plant are used to relieve arthritic joint-pain and other
inflammation related ailments. The bark is used to make a sweet tea, claimed to
 help in allergies
(Asthma), sore throat etc. It produces a gum-resin (frankincense)
similar to the "Dummmala"
used as an incense in Sri Lanka. Clough gives the name Gugul for such gum-resins,
in the context of Amyrus agallocha.  
See Images, write up and the
use of Boswellia
Serrata in Indian Medicine

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Boswellia serrata

glabra
attam


Boswellia serrata

glabra
muraiyidam

->

Boswellia Sacra, thurifera (Frankincense tree, incense tree )
Image and write up Sallaki
(this name is given in B. Clough&#39;s 19th-century Sinhala dictionary, p671)
Kuntharuka Kundarika muruntapali 1 This tree also produces &#39;frankincense&#39;, used in incense and perfumes.

There are four Bougainvillaea spectabilis Katurolu – kirusnakeli,kiruttinakeli –

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Bougainvillaea spectabilis


kiruttinakeli
->

-Brachiaria mutica Diya Tana – – – – -Brachystelma lankana (Asclepiadaceae) Pathan ala – – Critically endanagered, but was known to exist in the Knuckles region, and listed
in Dassanayake and Fosberg.
It is a small herb simple stem or with a few branches. Consisting one tuber underground, with small leaves tapering at both ends and laceolate in shape, small flowers.
Sunday Observer images and write up Brassica alba (Ceylon Spinach), see Basella Alba – -Nivithi – – Excellent source of iron. This is a very valuable leafy vegetable.

Toponyms
Nivithigala (sabaragamuva province), Nivitigama (North-cental)

Brassica campestris navet sarshapa- siddhartha karuppukkadugu – Brassica juncea (indian mustard)
Brassicaceae family ( old family name: Cruciferae) Aba, kaluaba, gang-aba ගං අබ – katuku used in "Achcharu" (pickel), in medicine, poultices etc. Brassica Oleraceia (Kohlrabi)
Image and write up Raabu, Rabu, රාබු – Kolrapi, கோல்ராபி Eaten cooked, curried, salads, sambahr etc. It is also
used in "Achcharu" (pickel), in medicine, poultices etc. It is a vegetable
introduced to Sri lanka. Traditionaally said to be good for gout and arthritis.

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Breynia rhamnoides


pavalappul
->

Bridelia retusa (kino tree) Kaetakaela, Katakela ekavira- asana adamarudu, mulvengai -A small Tree with a smooth, pale yellowish-grey bark and rusty;
 leaves simple, alternate, numerous.
Bark has anti-fungal activity.

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Bridelia retusa


mulvengai
->

Brugmansia suaveolens
(no longer classified as a Datura) Aththana – – see also Datura fastuosa Bruguiera cylindrica, B. sexangula (Mangrove) Mal Kadol – – – Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Mangrove) Mal Kadol – – –

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Buchanania axillaris


mundamah

->

Buchnera asiaticaSynonym of Striga asiatica (L.)

Family: Scrophulariaceae Sudu Dadinnaru; also, B. Euphrasioides is `Dadinnaru;

– milagaranai – Buchanania latifolia, Buchanania lanzan (chirauli-nut, Cuddapah almond)

Family: Anacardiaceae Piyaa gaha – Modamaram?-

A medium-sized nearly evergreen tree reaching 13-18 m in height.
  with a straight trunk and young branches clothed with
silky hairs; leaves simple, alternate entire, thickly coriaceous, ~12.5 cm long,
~6.2 cm broad, broadly oblong
Fruit a drupe, ovoid-reniform, size of a small cherry, purplish-black.
USES Seeds used as a sweetmeat, rich in oil. Tha bark contain tannin
 and the gum have medicinal properties, Mentioned by B. Clough, 1890

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Buchanania lanzan


modama


Bulbostylis barbata


mukkutikorei

->

Butea frondosa Pulas, Palas Parasan palacu, palasu, Murukku

Parasanweva, Pulasweva (Parasangkulam) Butea monosperma Gas kela, Galkaela – – palacu –

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes Caesalpinia bonduc (gray Nickarbean, Fever nut) Kumburu, Kumburu vael – Latakaranjah- Putrakaranjah kalarci, kazhar-shikkay – A stout climbing shrub with finely grey pubescent stems and straight small
prickles; leaves alternate, very large, compound, main branchis ~12.5 cm long,
cylindrical, finely woolly-pubescent.- Caesalpinia crista – Diya-vavlaetiya, (Wavlatiya)- – – See also goda-vavlaetiya Caesalpinia echinata (Brezel wood)

Diya-vavlaetiya, (Wavlatiya)- – – See also goda-vavlaetiya Caesalpinia enneaphyllum, Mezoneurum enneaphyllum – Goda-vavlaetiya, (Goda Wavlatiya)- – – Clough, 1892, p168
and Annales botanices systematicae, Volume 4
 By Wilhelm Gerhard Walpers, p591 Caesalpinia longana (peacock flower) Monara Pila – – See images of varieties of "Peacock flower -caesalpina varieties Caesalpinia major – Kalu Wavlatiya, Kalu Vavlaetiya – – kazarci kalichikai An extensive climber with finely grey, downy branches armed with hooked and
straight, hard, yellow prickles; leaves large, abruptly pinnate, 30-60 cm long,
petiols prickly- Caesalpinia sappan (Sapanwood, Indian redwood )
Family: Fabaceae Patangi – This sinhala name is derived from its sanskrit/prakrit forms.
Image
Write up and images Patranga- Pathimukham- A medium-sized tree 6&#39; high with a prickly stem ~15cm diam-
The heartwood is used to make a valuable reddish dye called brazilin, used for
 dyeing fabric as well as making red paints and inks. The wood takes a high finish
 and is resistant to termites. It is used for inlaying work, cabinet making, violin bows and for walking sticks.

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Cadaba fruticosa


piluka


Cadaba fruticosa


narivili@

->

Cadaba indica (indian cadaba)
Picture and
Scrivilo
shrub with simple oblong leaves and greenish flowers.
Ira vara, Irawara, wara, Ira Varaa – manatukkurntu, Uses in local medicine: Stimulant, antiscorbutic and aperient.
Decoction of leaves of C. Indica is used as anthelmintic in round
worms. The juice of C. Trifoliata is given in dyspepsia in
children. Leaves are used as purgative, emmenagogue and antiph-
logistic, combined with myrobalans and ginger, or with senna and
Epsom salt. In amenorrhaea and dysmenorrhoea a decoction of
the leaves, combined with castor- oil and turmeric, is found useful.
It is also given in syphilis, scrofula and rheumatism. Externally the
leaves are used as varalians with the leaves of odina wodier to
relieve rheumatic pains, and as a poultice to boils to promote suppu-
ration. The leaves are used by local people in preparing medicated oils.
– (source: Materia-medica of india)

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Caesalpinia bonduc


kalarci


Caesalpinia bonduc


kazhar-shikkay


Caesalpinia bonducella


kalarci


Caesalpinia bonducella


kaccakkay


Caesalpinia coriaria


inki maram


Caesalpinia coriaria


koticcittal


Caesalpinia crista


kazarci


Caesalpinia crista


kkazarci kalichikai

–!>

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Caesalpinia pulcherrima


mayirkonrai


Caesalpinia pulcherrima


mayilkonnai
->

Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea, Pea Dhal, Tur-dhal) thora-parippu adhaki tuvarai syn. Cajanus indicus
Pigeon peas are a very important part of food. Sometimes Thora il est
used specifically for the yellow peas, while parippu is specifically
used for Dhal, i.e., mansoor dhal. However, the Dhal is grown
 in Saskatchewan. Canada, exported to India for dehulling etc.,
and Sri lanka imports it from India !
It is a part of Colombo&#39;s Baila culture with criket and Rugby songs like:
Thora parippu, thora parippu, go Royal go, …
Preparing Sri-lankan Dhal Curry

The epithet "Parippuva" is also used as a mild insult, to
refer to a person of low means, reduced to eating
Dhal curry and rice.

Many Pea varieties have been introduced
by agriculturalists. The variety "Prasada" is recommended in
Sr Lanka. Farm machinary for dehulling etc., have been
developed in Sri lanka, and some have been exported to
Africa.

Dhal processing, Dept. of Agriculture, Sri lanka Calamus species cane, rattan

  • Calamus delicatulus
  • Calamus digitatus
  • Calamus ovoideus
  • Calamus pachystemonus
  • Calamus pseudotenuis
  • Calamus rivalis
  • Calamus rotang (Calamus roxburghii)
  • Calamus zeylanicus
  • Narawel, Nawa-wel, naravael
  • Kukula wel
  • Sudu vevael, Thambotu vael
  • Kukuluwel,
    Kukul vael
  • Heen wewel, heen vevael
  • Kaha wevael
  • Wevwel, Wewael
  • Mavevael, Wanduru-vael

Many are in the thratened species IUCN red list. vetra- vetasa perambu, vaniram rattan or cane is used extensively in basket weaving, furtnture and other applications.
Image, Calamus rotang Calendula arvensis (Marigold) Daas-pethi, Daas mal sthulapushpa Sendigai Poo- A popular garden flower and a
 member of the daisy family. A common component of garlands
in Sri lanka, India and other South Asian countries.
Images and write up

Farmed as a cash crop in India for
extracting oleoresin, used in the nutraceutical industry.

Marigold brings cheers to farmers of Thanjavur


It is claimed that

"The four months old crop comes for first harvest in two months
itself and from then onwards four to five harvests could be done.
The production would be six to eight tonnes per acre of land.
While the cultivation cost was only Rs.5000 to Rs.6000 per acre (Indian rupees, in 2006),
 a farmer could get Rs.10,000 to Rs.12,000 per acre as profit. Besides medicinal value,
 the crop kills nematodes in land when cultivated. The suitable time for cultivation
 of this flower is November to March."


The plant is not commercially exploited in Sri lanka.

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Calamus rotang


vaniram

->

Callicarpa tomentosa Eela Gaha, Illa Malgaha – kattukkumil, vettilaipattai –
    (Alexandrian laurel family)

  • Calophyllum bracteaum
  • C. cuniform
  • C. Calaba
  • C. Cordato-oblongum (Thw)
  • C. mooni (Wright)
  • C. Thwaitesii
  • C. Tormentosum
  • C walkeri
  • C. zeylanicau (Thw)
  • Keena, Kina
  • Kina, Keena
  • Gulukeena, heenkeena
  • Kalu keena
  • Domba keena
  • batu Keena
  • Tel Keena
  • Keena

Naga Champa- Punnai is C. Inophyllum listed in Sinhala as "Domba".
See next entry.

Calophyllum bracteatum is a species of flowering plant in the Calophyllaceae family. It is found in Sri Lanka, papua new Guinia
All are threatened IUNC red listed species.
Image and description
Varieties of keena are identified in some detail in Sinhala presumably
pouquoi
of its importance as a timber, esp. for sea-faring applications ?

Calophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian Laurel)

There are some 200 species of Calophyllum, a medium sized timber tree.
Calophyllum cordato-oblongum and Calophyllum cuneifolium are species of the Calophyllaceae family found only in Sri Lanka
 (2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species).

Domba

"Tel Domba", "Batadoma" and "Pithi Domba" are variates, whose exact botanical names are yet to be listed.

"Batadombalena", or "Batadomba-lena" is the place name
of a rockshelter in the rainforest of southwestern Sri Lanka. It has yielded some of the earliest
 evidence of Homo sapiens in South Asia. Early human foragers were present at Batadomba-lena from
 ca. 36,000 cal BP to the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene.
See Dorian Fuller et al

punnaga, Naga-champa

The Sanskrit name "Pun-naga" is sometimes claimed to have a "dravidian" etymology.
In reality, it means "small" naaga tree, where "Pun" is cognate with the English "Puny" (French puî né :younger (sibling)"),Latin Postia, i.e., secondary), or small ("podi" in Sinhala). In Sanskrit "puna" means a "repeat form", in this case, of the Ironwood tree. Hence "Pun-naaga" is meant to indicate a secondary type of Ironwood ("naa tree in Sinhala). However, botanically Ironwod and Domba are not related. In any case, the Sanskrit name "Punnaga" is a true Sanskrit/Prakrit word, and the Tamil name (first seen in the Cankam period literature) comes many centuries after the occurance of words like "puna" and "Naga" in Prakrit. Hence the Dravidian languages may have acquired it from older Indic languages.
It is noteworth that the Sinhala name "Domba" is derived from the "Champa" form of the nme, and not the
punnaaga form.

punnai, pinnai, nagam

The name "Punnai" in Tamil and its cognates found in other Dravidian languages such as Punna (Malayalam), Ponne, Honne (Kannada), Ponne (Tulu), and Ponna (Telugu) are sometimes regarded as words of Dravidian etymology. However, the word has no clear meaning in Tamil (while "Ponna", etc., could mean gold), although it has a clear meaning in Sanskrit/Prakrit. Hence the name may have come into the Dravidian languages via Prakrit to Tamil Prakrit, with the first recording in the Cankam period, that is, much later than the Sanskrit forms.

Place names:
Dombape (Punanai)
Dombatuva (Punanaitupe)
Dombape (Punnalai)
Dombakaduva (Punnalakadduvan)
Bata-Domba-lena

The sinhala name "Domba" is most probabaly a distortion of the
Sanskrit "Champa" which is possibly used in Pali as well.

According to the "lanka chronicle" write up:
"The fruit has a hard shell and the kernel yields an oil which is used as a medicine for
rheumatic pains and is also one of the five kinds of oil known as Pas-tel .
 In some parts
of India the oil has a reputation as a cure for Scabies. The bark of the tree is used as
an antiseptic; internally, preparations of the bark are used in cough.".
The Domba latex is said to contain an anti-HIV agent (a coumarine).

(see
report by Sino, Dodier and Sotheesvaran,
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol 8, 3475 (1988))
Hanna, L. "Calanolide A: A Natural Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase
 Inhibitor." Bulletin of Experimental Treatments for AIDS. April 1999.
Sarawak MediChem Pharmaceuticals, Inc. PRNewswire. February 5, 1998;
September 30, 1998.
Wilson, E.O. The Future of Life. Alfred A. Knopf. New York: 2002
See entry under Calophyllum Lanigerum.
"Calophyllum antillanum" is a "Domba" species valued for its timber.

known (a Costatolide, or Calanolide B)

Images and write up

Calophyllum Lanigerum – "Domba" species – – The plant is in the same family as "Domba" of Sri lanka,
has strong similarities to "Domba", but it is
not the same as the Domba plant which is Calophyllum inophyllum. This plant
has leaves which are longer and more spear-shaped than "Domba".
We have tentatively called it "Pithi Domba"
The plant extract is claimed to contain an anti-HIV agent, calanolide A.
Image,
Calophyllum Lanigerum
Calophyllum tomentosum Keena, Tel-Keena – Bitangor(am) (indian name) – "Domba family" timber. Native to Sri lanka,
 and red-listed as threatened. xanthenes and
tri-terpenes have been extracted from this trea components by
Peradeniya University Researchers, some of them being
our academic collegues.:
 Subadra Karunanayake, Subramanian Sotheeswaran,
 M. Uvais, S. Sultanbawaa and Sinnathamby Balasubramaniam
Phytochemistry
Volume 20, Issue 6, 1981, Pages 1303-1304
– Calotropis gigantea (crown flower, giant milkweed) Wara, Vara, varaa

see also: Asclepias varieties

Sooryapathra, arka erukku, erukkam Some varieties attract Monarch butterflies. The name "Elawara" or "Ganarupa" is
also used.
Used in Homeopathy.
 Photos Calotropis procera Vaeli Wara? – vellai erukku –

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Calycopteris floribunda


therulankodi


Calycopteris floribunda


minnargodi


Camelia sinensis


teyilai

->

Camellia sinensis, China tea
Images and short write up
Family: Theaceae (Tea family)
It was known in China from ancient times. The (as in Thébes),  තේ The gaha, The Kola
Tea was introduced into Sri Lanka in the 19th century
when the previous cash crop, Coffee,
suffered disease. James Taylor, a Scottish planter
who arrived in Sri Lanka in 1852 developed `St Clair&#39;, Talawakele
as a tea plantation, and the first shipment to London auctions was in 1875. A monument to him by sculptor Sarath Chandrajeewa
 stands their today.
`Ceylon Tea&#39; soon became the major export
of the country, and the best tea comes from the highest elevations in the hill country. Nuwara Eliya tea, close to Talawakele where the Tea Research Institute
(TRI) is located, is a very high-quality tea. Low grown teas are less falvourful but richer in
body (mostly due to tanins). The commercial teas are a blend of high-grown and low-grown teas.

There are six main varieties of tea; white, yellow, green, oolong (half-fermented variety), black (fully fermented), and post-fermented (Pu-erh) tea, yellow and Pu-erh are not usually available in the market.80% of the tea consumption is black, though in China and Japan the most popular is green tea. Iced tea is the most popular tea in the US; it is consumed in large amounts but is very unhealthy healthy as it is full of sugar!

Syamaparni
The Japanese `tea ceremony&#39; is a highly important iconic Japanese cultural
practice. Here green-tea powder is used in a ritualistic way. thayilai, Tey
After picking, tea leaves begin to oxidize and darken due to the breakdown of chlorophyll, the green pigment, by enzymes in the cells which releases tannins. This process called fermentation can be stopped by heating and resultant wilting. The method of preparation affects flavor as well as the nutritional content. Black tea is made from leaves that are wilted and fully oxidized, oolong is wilted and only partly oxidized, green is wilted but not oxidized while white tea is neither wilted nor oxidized, made from very tender buds before they acquire chlorophyll.

 Tea plant has a high sensitivity to and absorption of environmental pollutants like fluoride and aluminium, old leaves containing high levels of both. Though the danger from aluminium is only theoretical, it is advisable for people living in high fluoride areas to moderate tea consumption but in low fluoride areas this may be an advantage, preventing tooth decay. Tea has many health benefits.

The powerful antioxidant property of tea is likely to help in many ways:

Drinking three or four cups of tea daily has been shown to reduce the chance of having a heart attack. (Tea also reduces the level of cholesterol and fat in blood though in small amounts). A Japanese study has shown that those who drank more than five cups of green tea daily had a 26% reduction in death from a heart attack or a stroke compared to those who drank one cup or less. The effect was more pronounced in women.

A review in 2009 of 51 green tea studies showed drinking three to five cups a day lowered the risk of ovarian, colorectal, lung and prostate cancers.

Drinking one to four cups of black or green tea has been linked with a lower risk of Parkinson&#39;s disease, according to the National Institute of Health of USA.

There is data to show that tea reduces lung damage in smokers and prevent lung cancer but it is better not depend on tea to do the prevention but give up the killer fag!

Canarium zeylanicum, Aleurites triloba (candle nut tree)

The nuts of this tree have been used by ancient indegenous people who inhabited Sri Lanka.
Thus, excavations in Bata-domba-lena, a rock shelter used by early Homo Sapiens, have yielded
Canarium nut residues.
See Dorian Fuller et al

Kekuna, Kaekuna, kakuna – Pakkilipal- The name is recorded in Clough, 1892, p 139.
There is a
sinhala saying: "Val oouro kaekuna thalana vita haban kukulanta magul"

A very large tree, with a pale, smooth, thin bark, buttressed roots and densely
fulvous pubescent young shoots. leaves pinnate compound, alternate, Leaflets 3
pairs and a terminal. The relationship of this tree to
Canarium species
 in Madagascar, Andaman Ils and Mauritius has been discussed.

See
Canarium Madagascariense

No images of C. zeylanicum are currently available.
For images of related species see Images

This is an increasingly rare tree, and produces a gum-resin
similar to "Dummala".
see Dummala, traditional resin

The place names based on "Kaekuna" are,
as far as we know, found only in the
North-western province and southern province.
Those in the
North-Western province are:
Kekunagahakotuwa,
Kekunagolla, Kekunawala, Kekunewa

Those in the Southern province are:
Kekanadura, Kekunawela, Kekunawila

However, the tree has been recorded in other areas including
the Matale district. Canavalia obtusifolia Mooduvara – – – Canna indica (canna lilly, Indian shot) Buth Sarana, "caennas" – kalvalai – Canna indica (Indian shot) "Cannas" – puvalai Introduced to SL by horticulturists.
Seeds used as beads in "natural-seed jewelry" comes from a beautiful wildflower
native to the Caribbean region and tropical America.

->

Cannabis sativa (Marijuana)

Psychedelic drug which became well known after the "hippie" movement of the 1960s;
 this is described as
"Triloka Vijayam" in Sanskrit texts. Ganja is included in some
traditional herbal prescriptions.
The active ingredient is Tetrahydrocannabinol or THC.

Ganja, Kansa ganjika- bhanga kanja, kanca

The US La Guardia report in the 1970s
was the first to propose decriminalization of the personal use of Cannabis. The first discussion of this in Sri Lanka was sponsored by the Institute of Chemistry, in 1973 with
Dr. Ramakrishna (chair), Dr. Kottagoda (Pharamacology), Dr. Para(?) Chandrasoma (Psychiatry), Dr. Chandre Dharmawardana (Chemistry), and the Government
Analyst (Mr. Nithkunanathan) as panelists.
 Dr. Kottagoda and Dr.Chandrasoma took a strongly anti Cannabis point of view, while Dr. Dharmawardana argued that tobacco is a far greater public menace ignored by the authorities who put in much effort trying to control Cannabis, while
profiting from tobacco sales. A "vedamahaththaya" (sinhala herbal doctor) who was in the audience strongly pitched for
its decriminalization for medical use in "sinhala vedakama" (sihala herbal medicine). Two Cannabis plants (resembling "daas mal gas") were provided by the police
(with the help of Mr. Mahinda Rajapaksa, the then member of Parliament for Hambantota)
 for demonstration purposes.

Raid on a Cannabis Plantation

Image of plant

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Canthium dicoccum

dicoccum
imburuttam


Canthium dicoccum

umbellatum
alampamaram


Canthium parviflorum


karai


Canthium parviflorum


karaicceti


Capparis aphylla


karyal


Capparis divaricata


turatti
->

Capparis horida, Capparis moonii,Capparia moonii, Capparia zeylanica Wellangiriya, Vellangiriya – turatti A climbing shrub with long, divaricate branches, leaves simple, alternate,
oval-lanceolate or oblong, 4. 2- 5 cm long. –

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Capparis grandis


mudkondai


Capparis sepiaria


kokkimullu


Capparis sepiaria


karunjurai

->

Capparis zeylanica (Ceylon capper) Welangiriya Vyaghranakhi, kinkani, tapasapriya adondai atontai Large shrub, 2-5 m high, showy flowers.
Image
and description

– Capsicum annuum Malumiris katuvira- pittakarini milakai This a large "bell-pepper" used in Sri lankan cooking mainly
as a stuffed-pper preparation, sometimes battered as in a "Bae Capsicum chinense (Birds-eye chili, Thai chili) Kochchi miris, cochchi miris – kanthari mulagu (malayalam), milagai- This is a very hot, small chili found in Sri lanka, and attributed to a Malabar-Cochin origin.
The botanical name "Capsicum frutescenes" has also been previously ascribed to it., and it was simply
regarded as a variate. See below., under Miris. The Capsium chinense however has a very different shape and other taxonomic characteristics,
and the issue of classification is not completely clear.

A very hot pepper has been created as a
 hybrid of several hot peppers, viz.,
Naga Chili"-hottest chili?

Capsicum frutescenes (chili pepper, Thai pepper, Thai chili) Miris, Kochchi miris

Miris is an essential part of Sri Lankan cooking, and the main ingredient of "Lunimiris".
It is also used in preparations and sprays for riot control.

The "hotness" of a chili sample can be measured using the so-called "scovil test" which scans the
presence of astringent chemicals like capsaicin. "Cochchi miris", similar to Tabasco peppers,
 is a hot, small sized version of the normal "miris" which is
slender, elongated and mostly used in "Chili Powder".

– milagai Miriswatte, Mirisa-vaetiya, Mirrissa are known place names. Mirisa Vaetiya is
an important Anuradhapura Shrine mentioned in the Mahavamsa.

Miris extracts are found to be protective against stomach ulcers (based on experiments on rats,
 with ulcers induced by aspirin.) The following report is found on the Internet
 (we do not endorse everything said in it):

The dried fruit is a powerful local stimulant with no narcotic effect, it is most useful in atoning the intestines and stomach(4). It has proved efficacious in dilating blood vessels and thus relieving chronic congestion of people addicted to drink(4). ..(sic)…The fruit is also antihaemorrhoidal, antirheumatic, antiseptic, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, sialagogue and stomachic(7, 165, 171). These pungent fruited peppers are important in the tropics as food preservatives(238). The fruits contain 0.1 – 1.5% capsaicin(254). This substance stimulates the circulation and alters temperature regulation. Applied to the skin it desensitizes nerve endings and so has been used as a local anaesthetic(254). The seed contains capsicidins(254). These are thought to have antibiotic properties(254)
click for full report

Carallia Brachiata, Carallia integerrima (Fresh water mangrove) Davata, Dawata – Andimiriam Images and write up
This is a somewhat salt-tolerant trea.
Place names like: Dawatagahamulatenna (Central province), dawatagolla, and Davatagama (Uva Province)
are found in Sri lanka.
This is a timber tree with beautiful foliage.
The bark has been valued as an anti-inflammatory,
 in wound healing etc.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences vol 71, no. 5, 576–577 (2009)
– Carallia calycina Ubberiya – – It is a threatened (red listed) species of plant in the Rhizophoraceae family.
The wood is used for furniture, floor paneling etc. It has two varieties in Sri Lanka.
One of them is found in the Sinha-Raja forest. The second variety is in the higher elevations,
above 1000 meters.
C'est un
tall Mid-canopy tree up to 39 m tall and 1 m girth. Stipules ca. 18 mm long,
 dropped early. Leaves opposite, simple, penni-veined, glabrous, leaf margin toothed.
 Flowers ca. 4 mm diameter, white-yellowish, placed solitary or in branched inflorescences.
 Fruits ~4 mm diameter, yellow-red, drupes
Carallia integerrima (Dawata), is a related, beautiful tree.

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Caralluma umbellata


elumanpuli


Caralluma umbellata


eluman
->

Caram Carvi(Caraway, Persian cumin)
Family: Apiaceae
Images and write up No well established sinhala name for Caraway, although Wal duru ?, Maa duru
have been mentioned. It is not generally known to Sri lankan spice users. Karavi – Often confused with fennel (maa duru) and so it is also called Maa duru
This plant prefers dry higher altitude areas. Careya arborea (Wild Guvava, Ceylon Oak) kahata Bhadrendrani, Khumbi- Puta-tanni-maram, Aima, Karekku-

"Kahata-gaha-handiya", and such place names are found in Sri lanka.
Kahata-gas-yaya is a place name near Galoya national park (Eastern Pr.).
Kahatagahamaditta,
Kahatamaditta, Kahatamba, Kahatapitiya, Kahataruppa, Kahatamba, Kahatawela are all in the
UVa province.
There is a Kahatapitiya in the Sabaragamuwa Pr.
Kahatana, Kahatowita, kahatapitiya, and Kahataduwa are found in the western province.
Kahatadanda, Kahatagaha aswaedduma, Kahatagas thaenna, kahatapitiya, are found in the central Pr.
Kahatagahadigiliyya, Khatagahaweva, Kahatagollewa, are in the North-central Pr.

The bark is used in indigenous medications.
Images and write up

Cardiospermum halicacabum, C microcarpum Wel Penela, Vael Penela jyotismati- indravalli kottavan, mutakkarran Medical uses as a tisane-

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Cardiospermum halicacabum


mutakkarran

->

Careya arborea Kahata – – kumbi –

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Careya arborea


ayma
->

Carica papaya (Papaya, Papaw)

The Papaya Leaf contains
 the fermenting agent myrosin, alkaloids, rutin, resin, tannins,
 carpaine, dehydrocarpaines, pseudocarpaine, flavonols, benzylglucosinolate,
 linalool, malic Acid see details,
 metile
 salicylate, another enzyme, chymopapain (latex and exudate), calcium, iron,
 magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, Zinc
 beta-carotene, B-vitamins
 and vitamins A, C and E.
However, the papaya seeds have not yet been adequately researched.

Paepol, Gaslabu erandakarkati- madhukarkati pappayi, pappali This tree has male and female plants, and may grow to 6-8 meters in
tropical well watered slightly acidic soils. Its leaf and milky latex contains
Papain, an enzyme which breaks down meat. Hence papaya leaves are used to
tenderize meat. Using papaya leaf in salads is said to
help heart-burn, and indigestion, against worms, herpes, prostrate inflammation.

It is included in commercial
preparations as a meat tenderizer and often used for that purpose in
 restaurants, and it also used commercially in chewing gums and as a
  stabilizing agent that is used to clarify beer. Papaya Leaves were even fed
 to animals to tenderize their flesh.

Papaya juice has been used in the Philippines for various types of
viral fever including Dengu.
The juice from crushed Payaya-leaf has been claimed to normalizes blood platelet in Dengue patients in Sri Lanka.
  see also for other claimed herbal cures for Dengu fever.

It has also been claimed as an anti-cancer agent.
Sunday Observer 25-July2010 report of
clinical trial
with controls

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Carica papaya
Gaslabu

pappali
->

Carissa carandas

Images and write up

"The Heen karamba ( Carissa spinarum ) is a shrub found typically in undergrowth in secondary forest in the dry zone and is a plant with multiple uses. It has jasmine like white flowers, edible fruits, and the oil extracted from the leaves is used for wounds and for relieving skin irritations such as itchiness. A fence made from the branches of this shrub are said to be a deterrent even to an elephant."

Karanda, Maha Karamba karamardaka- kila, kala A small tree or a large shrub, with numerous, divaricate branches and vcry sharp
horizontal spines, often branched. Carissa spinarum (Conksberry or Bush plum) Karamba,Heen karamba karamarda chirukila, sirukila toponimi
Karambavila (Siruvilan)
Karambapona (Karampon)
Karambapitiya (Siruppiddy)

Heen karamaba write up, national herbarium,
The herberium website was established in 2004
Carmona microphylla – Heen Tambala – – – A shrub, l-1.3 rn tall with numerous, slender, divaricate branches with a reddish
>brown – cracked bark leaves simple, small. ~0.7 cm long, ~0.6 cm broad.-

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Carmona retusa


kuruvinci 2


Carmona retusa


malaiverrilai
->

Carum Ajowan Assamodagam- – Amam – carya glabra pignut hickory Not well known in Sri Lanka – The related Pecan (Carya illinoinensis or illinoensis = Pecan) is known in Tamil as Pekkan valuable timber Caryota urens Kithul, Kitul, කිතුල්

The Kithul tree is celbrated for the syrup (Kithul Paeni,
කිතුල් ;පැනි) or
"treacle" produced
from its sugary sap. Kithul Paeni is the preferred accompaniment of
of the dessert of the Sinhala South – Buffalo curd and Kithul Paeni.
The jaggery (Kithul Hakuru) made from Kithul paeni is preferred over that from
the coconut palm (Pol Hakuru). A flour made from the pith of the
tree is also well known, esp. in the Kandyan area, where a pan
cake ("roti", ;රොටි), a gruel ("thalapa",
තලප ) containing Kitul flour, and coconut,
are consumed. A sweet gruel is also made. A "vatalappam-like" sweet
is also made with Kitul piti (kitul flour), jaggery etc.
The fiber is used to make
 a very strong rope. The timber is used as rafters etc.

mada- sritalah kuntarpanai, talippanai Kithulgala is the location for the classic movie "Bridge over River Kwai".

Alexander von Humbolt wrote ("Travels in the equinoctial regions of
America) in 1853 that:  
"The nutritious fecula or medullary flour of the sago trees (Sagus
Rumphii) is found principally in
a group of palms which M. Knuth has distinguished by the name of Calameae.
It is collected, however, in the Indian Archipelago, as an article of trade, from
the trunks of the Cycas revoluta, the Phoenix farinifera, the Coryphen
umbruculifera, and the Caryota urens (Ainslie, Materia medica of Hindustan,
Madras, 1813
)".
Kitul Industry in Sri Lanka
  The gycymic index of Kithul food-preparations has been studied
at Sri-jp university, Sri Lanka.
Glycimic index

It is a tall unarmed palm, trunk ~13m tall and ~0.3m diam.,
cylindrical, annulate, not soboliferous, flowering when full grown
 from axils of
leaves beginning with the upper and thence successively downward, a male and
female spadix alternating and then dying.-

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Caryota urens


talippanai


Casearia elliptica


kadichai


Casearia tomentosa


kakoli 2


Casearia tomentosa


katiccai

->

Casearia zeylanica – Wal Waraka, Val varaka – – – –

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Cassia absus


mulaippalvirai


Cassia absus


kattukkollu


Cassia angustifolia


nilavakai


Cassia angustifolia


nilavarai

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Cassia alata, also Cassia didymobotrya
Cassia genus Eth Thora, Aeth thora – – "Aeth thora" means "elephant lentil" in sinhala. The plant is a
 large shrub with very thick, finely downy branches; leaves large, sub-sessile,
30cm long, pinnate, leaflets 8-pairs, each 5 cm long.- Cassia amara Sinkona – – See how ever, Cinchona officinalis Cassia angustifolia, see Cassia senna Senehe Kola – – A small shrub with stems 0.6 m high, erect, smooth pale green somewhat zigzag
with long spreading branches.- Cassia auriculata, Senna auriculata (Tanner&#39;s cassia) Ranavara, Ranawara avartaki- avarai, avaram A large, much branched shrub with smooth cinnamon brown bark and closely pubescent
branchlets. Inportant in Ayurveda. Used as a herbal tea of medicinal value, mainly
for urinary problems.
Images and
Scrivilo
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum, golden shower tree)
Fabaceae family.
Image and write up Aehaela, Ehela ඇහැල Aragvadha-
meaning "disease killer", and it is used as a laxative, and in a variety of ayurvedic preparations
 for so-called "bllod conditions". konrai, konnai, Mullaimaram Placename Ehelapola
was the village of a rebellious Adigar (Chieften) of the Last king of Kandy who
gradually became a cruel tyrant.
A small or moderate-sized tree with slender branches and pale grey bark when young,
brown and rough when old; leaves alternate, stipulate, abruptly pinnate compound,
large. Showy golden clusters of flowers.

The wood of Aehala is used to make temple drums, and Aehaela trees and flowers
are an integral part of Sri Lankan Buddhist culture, and Indian culture.
Ehaliyagoda

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Cassia glauca


ponnamikkonnai


Cassia hirsuta


malaiyavirai


Cassia hirsuta


malaiyavaram@

->

Cassia kleinii Bim Siyambala, Bin Siyambala – – – Cassia obvata (neutral henna) Seneha cola? Hemapushpi- – In Ayurved, used to cure skin allergies, leprosy, fever, reducing phlegm
and as a digestive aid. Used in removing
black spots on skin. It is an anti-dandruff shampooing, or to make
the hair shine. See also cassia angustifolia Cassia occidentalis Pani Thora – – peyavirai,ponnavirai A coarse annual, 30-90 cm high, stem slightly branched. nearly glabrous, furrowed,
purplish.-

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Cassia pumila


nallajiluga


Cassia roseus ??
Mini Mal ??


->

Cassia roxburghii (ceylon senna, Red cassia)
Fabaceae/Leguminosae (bean Family)
Cassia genus Wa, Waa, Ratu wa, rathu waa, Vaa – Vakai Images and write up
The seeds have been evaluated for its medicinal value as a "liver tonic" against hepatitis. Cassia senna, see Cassia angustifolia Seneha kola – nilavirai, Nilavagai, nilavakai ? In Ayurveda, used to cure skin allergies, leprosy, fever, reducing phlegm
and as a digestive aid. Used in removing
black spots on skin. It is an anti-dandruff shampooing, or to make
the hair shine. Cassia siamea ( Kassod Tree ) Wa – mancatkonrai – Image Cassia sophera Uru Thōra, Ooru thōra – ponnavirai- "ooru thora" means, in sinhala "pig dhal". Cassia spectabilis,
Synonyms: Senna spectabilis, Cassia amazonica, Cassia carnaval, Cassia edulis, Cassia excelsa (Spectacular Cassia) Aehala, Kahakona
This has been claimed to be an invasive plant – – See under Vassia fistula Cassia surattensis (sunshine tree) Wal Ehela, Val Aehala – –

Images of cassia –
– Cassia tora Peti Thora, Pethi-thora – thagarai- "Pethi" in sinhala means "slice-like" and "thōra is a generic
name for "lentil" or "dahl" Cassine balae Kabella, Kaebella – – see Aporosa lindleyana

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Cassine glauca


selluppaimaram


Cassine glauca


karuvali


Cassytha filiformis


erumaikkottan


Cassytha filiformis


kottan


Casuarina equisetifolia


cavukku

->

Catharanthus roseus (Periwinkle) Mini Mal, Paspethi (?) Sadaphuli Nithya Kalyani- This plant has "Paspethi"-like
flower (white or pink) and probabaly originated in south-Asian/Austranesian
 islands like
Madagascar, and possibly to Sri Lanka. The flower is said to be used in
"Pideni" of low-country Sri lankan exorcisms, as well as in some
native treatments.
In Ayurveda the leaves,the seeds, the flowers and the roots
 are used for treatment of leukemia, diabetes, menorrhagia.
Its use as an anti-cancer
tea in Jamica prompted a pharmaceutical investigation
which led to the formulation of Vinblastine (sold as Velban)
and Vincristine, both anti-cancer drugs, now produced
synthetically. There are many varieties of Periwinkle,
e.g., tiny Periwinkle, Catharanthus pusillus
Images and write up on Periwinkle Catunaregum spinosa Kukurumanna, Kukurumaana – madukarei, pungarei –

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Catunaregum spinosa


pungarei

->

Cayratia pedata Garandi- Dul-Vael, Madiya Wael pedata tiripatakam, kattuperandai, kitamatti –

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Cedrela toona


tunu


Cedrela toona


karansuli


Ceiba pentandra


ilavam

->

Ceiba pentandra
Kapok tree, Silk-cotton tree Imbul, himbul, Kotta
Image and write up
Katu-Imbul
Imbul trees are mentioned in the Mahawamsa, in regard to the story of
`Gotaimbara&#39;, one of the warriors of King Dutu-Gamunu who is claimed to have
uprooted imbul trees effortlessly. – ilavu See also Bombax Ceiba;
Produces a cotton-like fiber in its pods. The tree is called "white cotton" in English. Also,"Kapok".
A tall tree with a smooth, greenish-white, glabrous bark and horizontal primary branches in
whorls of three ; leaves alternate, digitate or palmate, closely placed on long petioles leaflets
5 or 7 on short winged stalks.- Celastrus paniculatus, Celastrus paniculatus (oriental staff vine)
IUCN red listed species. Duhudu- Jayothismati- vaaluluvai A cold-pressed herbal oil and "choorna" are made from the seeds.
 Supposed to
enhance memory. The plant has been recently found
in the Mahiyangana area.
Daily News report

There is some scientific evidence in support of these claims:  
Godkar et al: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume 93, Issues 2-3, August 2004, Pages 213-219 Celtis cinnamomea Gurenda – – – Celosia argentea (Cock&#39;s comb species) Kiri-haenda, kirihenda – pannai keerai, makili-k-kirai garden herb, ornamental, showy flowers Celosia cristata (Cock&#39;s comb) Kukul karamal – pannai keerai Edible, ornamental.

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Cenchrus ciliaris


kollukattai
->

Celtis timorensis (Nettle tree, sugarberry, hackberry) Brunda ?Burunda? – – C. timonensis is
endemic to Sri lanka. No image of this plant is available.

Images of other Celtis species
Centella asiatica, Hydrocotyle asiatica (indian Pennywort) Gotukola, gotukola mandukaparni, Brahmi- parni, vallarai, The name Trisanthus cochinchinensis è anche
sometimes used. There are several variates ogf gotukola, as seen in life size etc;
This is recognized even in local names, like "heen gotukola" etc.
In south India, a variety known as "Kaattu Vallarai" is known.
The sanskrit name "mandukaparni" and the Sinhala name are close, while the name
"Brahmi" has also been incorrectly used for Bacopa monnier, which is
&#39;Luniwila&#39;, a very different herb which grows in marshes.

Green herb, eaten as fresh slad, cooked salad (Maellung), and in
broth (Kola Kaenda) in Sri Lanka, where it is also a valued herbal
medicine – general tonic. Ayurvedic preparations are available
as oil, tablet, herbal tea etc.
Recipe for Gotukola Sambolaya

Leaves contain an oleaginous substance, vellarin, having a strong odor
 recalling that of the plant, and a bitter, pungent,
 and persistent taste. (J. Phm. Chem; 1885, 49.) Centipeda minima Visa Dooli – – A small, annual herb with numerous, prostrate, slender, branching stems ~5cm long,
spreading from the centre; leaves simple, alternate, subsessile.- Centranthera indica, Centratherum indica Dutu Saputa Undir Karni kovai ?-

Image and write up

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Centratherum anthelminticum


sittilai


Centratherum anthelminticum


kaattu seerakam


Cephalandra indica


kovai


Cephalandra indica


karunkovai


Cerbera manghas


kattarali


Cerbera manghas


caat aralie
->

Cerbera manghas, Cerbera odoloam Kaduru, Gon-Kaduru auddalakah- – These are somewhat salt-tolerant trees.
N.B., Goda-kaduru is "Strychnos nux-vomica" Ceriops tagal (mangrove like) Rathu Kadol – Chirukandal – Ceropgia candelabrum Wel Mota, Vael Mota – – – Cestrum nocturnum (Night blooming Jasmine, Queen of the night.)
Solanaceae (potato family) Re manamali, Rae manamali, Rae-manamali රՆ
මනමාලි Rathri-rani ? – The sinhala name "Rae manamali" means, "bride of the night".
The english name Night-flowering jasmine is used for Sepalika, i.e.,
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis,
which is another night-blooming flower common in Buddhist-temple gardens. Rae manamali est un
sprawling shrub with vine-like stems. It blooms in cycles in warm weather, producing a fragrant scent in
the evening. Some individuals may be allergic to the perfume.
Image and write up

The flower has been used in aromatherapy and traditional medicine. Jasmine essential oils are used to treat
post-menstrual stress, uterine cramps. inflamed skin, sore throats and mouth ulcers.
 Its aroma calms emotions, restores confidence and may serve as an aphrodisiac.

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Chenopodium album


paruppukkirai


Chenopodium album


parupukkirai


Chionanthus mala-elengi


sorkili


Chloris barbata


cevvarakupul
->

Chlorophytum borivilianum
Family: Asparagaceae (or sometimes given as Liliaceae (Lily family)
Images and write up ? Safed Musli is used in Hindi ? It is a leaf vegetable in some parts of India, and its roots are used as an "aphrodisiac tonic" under the name safed musli in India. – Chloroxylon swietenia Handun bhillotaka- varimarai – Chloroxylon swietenia Sandun Chandana vaimari Chandana (Chankanai)
Sinhala saying "Handun vaneth urulaevo aethi", i.e.,
there are civet-cats even in a sandle-wood forest. Chromolaena odorata, Eupatorium odoratum, siam weed podisinghomaran – podisinghomaran – Cosidered a noxious weed. Chrysophyllum LaaOlu, Laolu – – – Chukrasia tabularis, Chukrasia velutina Hulan-hik, Ull-hik – agil, Aayili, Malaivempu – Cicer arietinum (chick-pea, Bengal gram)

Important legume crop of the ancient world and modern vegetarian diets.
Double cropping of chickpeas with short duration rice has been found to yield
higher returns. However, Sri Lanka depends on imports for its supply of Chick-peas.
The etymology of the word "Kadala" is unclear, as it is used as a generic
word in South India.
In sinhala, kadala could mean "pebble-like" and may be a
description of the pea. However, it is most likely adopted from the Malayalam
Kadala.

Kadala, Chanaka (Clough, p179), Konda-kadala Chanaka Kondai-Kadalai, Kothu kadalai –
The plant is a viscid, much branched annual herb; leaves alternate, pinnate compound, 2.
5 cm long with usually a terminal leaflet, leaflets about 6 mm long,
ovate-oblong to obvate, deeply toothed and strongly veined. "Parippu" (Parauppu in tamil)
 is another generic word, used for lentils (Dahl), and also for "Thora-parippu", Pigen-pea (Cajanus cajan)

    Types of kadala, beans, peas etc; Sinhala(S) Tamil(T) names are :

  • Black gram (Vigna mungo), Ulunthu (T, S), Undu (S)
  • Black-eyed Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata), Mae මෑ (T), Karamani (T),
  • Chick pea (Cicer arietinum), Kadala (S), Kondai kadala (T)
  • Green Pea (Pisum sativum), Patani-gram (T), pees (S)
  • Cow pea (Vigna unguiculata), Thora parippu (S), Thuvarm-parippu (T), Thatta Payir (T)
  • Field Beans (Vicia faba L), bonchi (S), Mochai(T)
  • Soya bean (Glycine max), Boo mae, බෝ මෑ (S), soya (T)
  • Green Gram (Vigna radiata) , Mung (S), Pasipayir (T), Payatham (T)
  • Horse gram (Dolichos biflorus), Kollu (S, T)

See also the independent entries for most of these varieties Cinnamomum camphora Kapuru – – karppuram There is a sinhala saying
"Kapuru daevoo thaena alu naethilu",
i.e., there said to be no ash where Camphor is burnt".

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Cinnamomum camphora


karpuram


Cinnamomum iners


kurakaccinnam


Cinnamomum iners


kattukkaruvappattai


Cinnamomum macrocarpum


karuva


Cinnamomum macrocarpum


ilavangappattai


Cinnamomum verum


karuva


Cinnamomum verum


llavangam

->

Cinnamomum dubium, Cinnamomum verum Cinnamon) Kurundu tacagandhī(pali), Lathaparna, patrnaamaka Karuvaa Cinnamon (name (of plant in the Laurel family) is a very ancient word, linking to Phoenician roots.
"kurundu" itself is believed to have arrived as a spice in Sri lanka with Ven. Mahinda,
the daughter of Asoka who brought the "Bo sapling" to Sri lanka in the 3rd century BC.
However, the plant may well have existed here long before that.

Several varieties of Sri Lankan cinnamon, as well as pseudo-versions like "Davul Kurundu"
 sono conosciuti

  • Pani Kurundu, Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu
  • Sinhala: Naga Kurundu
  • Pani Miris Kurundu
  • Weli Kurundu
  • Sewala Kurundu
  • Kahata Kurundu

It is our objective to obtain pictures of these varieties. If you have such picture, please
send them to place.names@yahoo.com

Where does the sinhala name "Kurundu" come from?

The word "Kurundi" existed, and was the name of a lost commentary on the Vinaya Pitaka,
 used by Buddhaghosa. Kurunthaka has also been used for the name of a tree in Pali texts, but we
do not know what it was. The name "Korandhaka Vihara" (Kurundu Vihara?)
 is mentioned in Chapter III, para 36 of Viduddhimagga., written probably around the 5th century CE.

Cinnamomum litseafolium Kuda Kurundu – – – Cinnamomum zeylanicum Kurundu, Val Kurundu Twale, Tvak Karuva, ilavankappattai Kurundugolla (Karuvaachchoalai)
Kurundukaenna (Karuvaakkeani)
Kurundu watta (Karuvakaadu)
Kurundanvaeva (Kurundankulama) Cipadessa baccifera Halbembiya – – savattuchedi – Cissampelos pareira (Midwives&#39; herb) Diyamiththa – patha, Ambasthaki appatta, ponmucuttai A small woody twiner with straggling branches, young shoots whip-like and pubescent;leaves
simple, alternate, exstipulate, entire, small, ~3.8 cm long, ovate-orbicular or
reniform-orbicular.-
Used in child birth in south-America. It is mainly used for digestive and
anti-inflammatory uses in India. Cissus latifolia Wal Diya Labu – – – Cissus quadrangularis (Veldt Grape or Devil&#39;s Backbone) Heeressa asthisamharaka – pirantai, perandai – Orbnamental plant in the west. Herbal medicine in South Asia
for to heal bone fractures (as an external poultice); cooked leaves or burnt
ashes are used for obesity and weight loss,
diabetes, metabolic imbalance etc.

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Cissus pedata


naralai-kodi


Citrullus colocynthis


peyt-tumatti

->

Citrullus colocynthis Yak Komadu – – varagamothankodi –

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Citrullus lanatus


dharbusini

->

Citrus aurantifolia, C. limon, C. Acida Dehi jambira ? elumiccai – Citrus aurantium Ambul Dodang, Aembul Dodang – – – Citrus crenatifolia Naran, Naaran – – Naranthanna (Naranthanai) Citrus grandis Embul Dodam, Aembul Dodang – – – Citrus madurensis (Musk lime, calamondin ) Nas Naran, Nas Naaran – – – Citrus medica Sidaran – campiram – –

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Citrus japonica
Nawahandi, nawahandi


->

Citrus limon Dehi jambira elumichai – Citrus nobilis Jamba naran – – – Citrus reticulata (Tangarines) Heen Naran, Heen Naaran – – – Citrus sinensis Pani Dodang – – – Clausena indica (Dalzell) Oliv.; Piptostylis indica Dalzell (basionym)
Family: Rutaceae

Small trees up to 4 m tall.
Bark grey, smooth; blaze white.
Young branchlets terete, glabrescent.
Leaves compound, imparipinnate, alternate, spiral; rachis terete, pulvinate, glabrescent when young; petiolule 0.3-0.5 cm long; leaflets 7-13, alternate, 2.5-6.5 x 1.7-3.5 cm, ovate to elliptic with unequal sides, apex acuminate with retuse tip, base asymmetric, margin crenulate, glabrous; secondary_nerves 5-8 pairs; tertiary_nerves broadly reticulate to obscure.
Inflorescence terminal corymbs; flowers white, pentamerous; pedicel up to 0.4 cm long.
Berry, globose, 1.3 cm across, yellowish when ripe; seed one. MeeGon Karapinccha
මීගොන්
කරපින්චා
ගස්
කරපින්චා
Image – Nana, Kariveppilei, Katta-veppilei- Used to flavour cooking. It is also valued for its
anti-microbial activity.
See, Vietnamese study: Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity

The essential oil obtained from the branches and leaves of Clausena indica (Dalz) Oliv. (Rutaceae) has been analyzed by GC/MS. Fifty-three components of the essential oil, representing 96.9% of the total amount, were identified. The main constituents were myristicin (35.3%), terpinolene (16.7%), and delta-3-carene (11.3%).

Clausena dentata
Image dehi karapincha, ali karapincha – kattu kariveppilai, potti The leaves are bigger than the common curry leaves, and more citron-flavoured.
Essential oil believed to a valuable larvicide:
Tamil Nadu study of Chemical composition Cleidion javanicum Okuru – – –

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Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth

A small tree with a corky, pistillate,
reddish-grey bark and stout spreading branches;leaves simple,
alternate, few rather large.-

Madara –

It is supposed to be also known as "Gajamadara" because elephants are
believed to be scared of the tree.
Leaves are not damaged by insects.
Locals believe that one variety of Ochna is madara and that it is malmadara.

In the threatened List of Plants

indrayava,- oduppai, odugu,nilaippalai Pictures and write up adapted from information etc., provided by
Shanta Abewickrema, Sep. 2010

A very old tree stands in the temple of Weli oya, Kaltota (Galthota) said to be from India. One sapling was transferred to Balangoda famous temple with a Budhdha statue at a peak of a hill and visible to all area.
It&#39;s seeds, leaves etc are very poisonous.
Madara 1
Picture of Indian

Cleistanthus collinus (Garari) with seed

The crushed leaves are used by would-be-suicides, and as a murder drug.
 The herbal agent contains toxic chemicals such as dyphyllin, collinusin and glycosides. According to Shankar et al.,
Int. J. of Injury Control and Safety Promotion,
Volume 16, Issue 4 December 2009 , pages 223 – 230,

the cumulative case fatality rate was 30%. The median time to death after Madara ingestion was 3 days. Common signs and symptoms included hypokalaemia, vomiting, hyponatraemia, altered sensorium, bradycardia and abnormal ECG. There was a 58% risk reduction (95% CI: 29-75) in death with each 1 mmol/l increase in plasma potassium level.  
Madara poisoning case stud,Easwarappa et al .J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2003;41(4):369-72

Cleistocalyx nervosum Bata Damba – – –

Clematis smilacifolia Narawel, Naravael – – Selon le Lanka Chronical
Cleome pentaphylla Sitharjaka – vaylee The name "Sitharjaka" seems to be mainly used in sinhala medical
texts, sometimes also for white (sitha Basil (Arjaka). See also B. Clough, p682

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Cleome viscosa


kattu-k-katuku

->

Cleome viscosa Wal-aba – naivelai –

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Clerodendrum inerme


cankankuppi

->

Clerodendrum inerme Galinda, wael-bo-haenda – – kuppi,

Varieties of Pinna (Clerodendrum) are used in herbal medicine

Clerodendrum infortunatum, Clerodendrum viscosum, Volkameria infortunata C. serratum
(Hill Glory- Bower) Pinna, Gas-Pinna, Kalupinna bhandira karukanni, Perugilai, vellaikkanni 1-2 metere high shrub. Most plants with the"Pinna" name have
applications in traditional medicine.
Images and
write up.

see also Phytlgia, vol 61, p 186 for field-naturalist discussions.

Pinna leaves (Pinna kola) are used to wrap "Haelapa", a flat cake
made of "Kurakkan"(Eleusine coracana).
A Kandyan place name, "Pinnakaele", may or may not have originated
from "Pinna thicket" in sinhala.
A village legend says that there were two pretty sisters in a Kandyan village,
one known as "Kalu Maenike", and the other "Rathu Maenike". The King
fancied Rathu Manike and took her to the Palace, and Kalu Manike remained
in the village, where Kalu maenike is reputed to have been asked:  
"Aei dha kalu pinnokele?"  
ඇයිද
කලු
 පින්
  නොකලේ ?

Cochlospermum Gossipyum, Cochlospermum religiosum (Buttercup tree, golden silk cotton tree) Kinihiriya, Ela-imbul – Kattupparutti, Tanaku konga The flowers are used in temple offerings.-

Images and write
sur

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Cocculus hirsutus


kattukodi


Cocculus hirsutus


kattukkoti
->

Cocos nucifera , coconut pol, Pol, Thambili, Thaembili, Kurumba, Vaevara

Thaembili is the golden coloured type of coconut, known as
“Ran-thaembili&#39;&#39;. A somewhat whiter variety is known as
“Gon-thaembili&#39;. The variety &#39;Pora-pol&#39; is used for sports as
hard missiles.
For other varieties
and coconut diversity, see J.Natn.Sci.Foundation Sri Lanka 2009 37 (2):99-109
by P. N. Dasanayaka et al.

Note that Bimpol (Trichopus zeylanicus) is not a palm, but a green herb found in Ritigala, and in the wet low-country in Sri Lanka.

The introduction on new varieties (e.g., Kola Kundira) is discussed
in an Island newspaper article, 2011

Kurumba, Vaevara are young coconuts, where the white “flesh&#39;&#39;
(called `lond(h)a&#39; in Sinhalese) inside
the fruit has not formed completely.

Naarikela,Nāḷikerika, Narikela, Narikera,
 Plli, proto-phala, puga, toyagarbha, karakatoya

The three names Plli, proto-phala and puga are for generic palms, and they
go back to the ancient Indian epics.
According to the Cologne Sanskrit dictionary, Plli is used for a `group of palms&#39;.
However, in contemporary usage pilli, or plli is mostly used for the Misawak tree.

Thennnai, Ila,taakkinay

5-th century sangam literature etc., show the gradual influx of Sanskrit words into Tamil.
(Kailasapathy has discussed this subject in some detail).

Taala , as well as Nartikela, Puga, and probabaly Pul il avait l'air
to be used in southern Indian languages which were rapidly maturing with the
shift of power to the south, when the Northern empires had begun to wane. At that time
Prakrit began to differentiate into Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam and Tamil by
absorbing into these respective Dravidian languages. Note that `Dravidian&#39;, or
`dameda&#39; of the Mahavamsa, simply means `southern&#39; as seen by North Indian writers, or
la Mahavamsa writer who identified himself with the North-Indian Vijaya clan.

Some Tamil scholars have argued that the name “Ilam, Eelam&#39;&#39;, or “hela&#39;&#39; for Lanka may have
 come from the Tamil name for coconut, Ila. The more likely possibility is that the
 Tamil name
"Ila" for the coconut came from it being found in the island of Helalankao
Hela, which morphed into Ila in Tamil. The addition of an &#39;H&#39;, or an &#39;a&#39;, in front
of some words is typical of ancient Parkrit-Elu usuages. Thus the &#39;elu&#39; word &#39;rahath&#39; becomes
&#39;Arhath&#39;, or &#39;Arhanth&#39; in Sanskrit/Pali. The same rule is mentioned in the Tamil grammar Tolkappian.

The origin of the word "Pol" has been extensively debated.
Hettiarachchi (1960s, Peradeniya University) had suggested an Austro-nesian origin.
Mahdi (Mahdi, W. 1998. Linguistic data on transmission of Southeast Asian cultigens to India and Sri Lanka.
Archaeology and Language II. R.M. Blench and M. Spriggs (eds.) 390-415. London: Routledge.1998:396
)
argues that the coconut was carried to Sri Lanka and India prior to the 2nd century
BCE; it occurs at Arikamedu in a Roman setting. Tamil taakkinay can mean a fruit of
the south, presumably referring to a Sri Lankan origin. Hence, Sri Lanka may have had
 the tree long before
India. That is, the south Indian coastal regions would have got the coconut trees, and even the
Palmyra from ancient Sri Lanka, or from other tropical sources like the
 Laccadives. The Tamil words Talaippalai, talaittatu, taalam,taalappam, taalapattiram
etc., can be directly traced to Sanskrit words. In fact we see that most of the Tamil words
for palm trees, talipots, acrecanuts etc., can be related to sanskrit root words.
Hence it should not be surprising that, contrary to the position taken by Hettiarachchi,
the sinhala words `pol&#39;, &#39;thal&#39;, and &#39;puvak&#39; should find their ancestry in Sanskrit, as we
discuss below.
The Mahabharata and other early texts use words like Pllu, protphala, puga, pour
various species of palms – arecanut, Palmyra, coconut, talipot etc (see Cologne Sanskrit Dictionary, and Capeller&#39;s Sanskrit Dictionary), and one may
surmise that the old Tamil forms Plli, purpati, Pukam, Puluriyam, Pul are related to these
Sanskrit words. The earliest Indian civilizations had already brought a form of
Prakrit to Sri Lanka,. Hence the pre-Buddhist settlers of Sri Lanka,
nourished by many languages as it is
on the ancient sea routes connecting Sumaria and the east, as well as contacts with India, would
have used a sanskritic name like Phala, palla morphing into Pol. The early-medieval
(sangam period ~2-5 CE) Tamil words like `Pul&#39;, now used for &#39;grass&#39; and not for palms, may have
also come from the Sanskrit `Pllu or Puga&#39;. There is probably little doubt that the Tamil word for arecanut, &#39;pukam&#39; is directly related to the Sanskrit root &#39;puga&#39;, which also
 gave rise to &#39;puva&#39; and &#39;puvak&#39; in Sinhala.
The more well known form used in
 Sanskrit, viz.,
narikela ou Narikera has been claimed to
be a composite of the two Austronesian words for coconut, `nyiur&#39;
and `kelapa&#39;, or at least incorporate elements from these roots. However, that claim ignores the
occurrence of the word in the Mahabharata (c.f., also Cologne Sanskrit Dictionary).
The Sanskrit Naarikera has been adapted to
Tamil as Naarikelam but not to any extent in sinhala.

By the 5th century the coconut was known to
the Greeks, as the term argellia (i.e., narikela) appears in the writings of
Cosmas Indicopleustes.

The first reference to a coconut plantation in
Sri Lanka is in an inscription at
Mihinthale, by the king Mahadathika Mahanage (7-19 CE). Culavamsa refers to a coconut
 plantation (three yojanas in extent), close to Mahatheetha (Mannar),
during King Aggabodhi-I (571-604 CE).

Toponyms
Polgahawela, Polgasowita, polgaha-anga, Polgolla, Polmalagama, Polpitiya, Polwatta, Polwatte-kanda,
Polwatte-gedera,
Polkandi (Polkanda), polgaha-agara, polgahakotuwa, Polgangoda, Polgahawewa, polgahawila,
 Polgahayaya, Polgammana, Polkada, Polkatuwa, Polkumbura, Polpattala, Polpitihigama,

Coconut water and its
Medicinal value by Prof. A. Dissanayake

Toddy tapping was frowned upon bu Buddhists who refrain
from alcoholic drinks. Hence Indian tappers,
esp. from Kochin have been employed. They were known in Sinhalese as "Kochhchi&#39;.
Today the temperance movement is weak, and locals do the tapping, as well
as the distillation of arrack from Toddy.
Tapping Palm Trees – Indian Tradition

A tapping technique is as follows. The inflorescence is bruised in its particular
stage of growth through beating and crushing it with wooden tongs. Then it is bound into
"torches" and tapped by cutting off the bandaged tips (Redhead 1989). A mallet is used for
slowly hitting several minutes a day the trunk beneath and above the stem of the
inflorescence while swinging it and finally pinching it before incision. A new incision is
made after every collection (Friedberg 1977). The method described by Crevost and Lemari
(1913) for Arenga pinnata is also practised on Borassus flabellifer.
In order to slow down the fermentation of the sap, the vessels are smoked and coated with
lime (Redhead 1989). Bark or leaves from different species are also used: Schleichera
oleosa bark or leaves (Friedberg 1977; Kovoor 1983), Shorea cochinchinensis bark in
Cambodia (Crevost and Lemari (1913; Kovoor 1983), Shorea obtusa in Burma, Shorea talura in
Thailand (Lubeigt 1977), Votica hermandiana bark (Magalon 1930), Launaea coromandelica
dried bark, Anacardium occidentale leaves (Kovoor 1983), Vateria acuminta bark or
Cyminosma pedunculata (Dissanayake 1986).

Cochlosermum gossypium, cochospermum gossypium. Kinihiriya, wael kinihitiya – – Also called ela-imbul, p119 Clough&#39;s dictionary. Coffea arabica Kopi – kappi, kapikottai –

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Coix lacryma-jobi


kattukuntumani


Coix lacryma-jobi


punaccippul


Coldenia procumbens


ceruppatai


Coldenia procumbens


seruppadai


Colebrookea oppositifolia


vitupucittalai
–->

Coleus amboinicus (Cuban Oregano) Kapparawalliya, Kapparavalliya karpuravalli- muttainari

Picture
– nettle family Coleus forskohlii, Coleus barbatus,
 Coleus aromaticus (False Boldo)
Lamiaceae (Mint family)
Image and write up Val seneha kola, Maagandi?, Kapparawalliya,? Makandi Karpooravalli (Karpuravalli), Pashanbheda A plant of the nettle-lavender-Mint family, light-blue flower,
known to Ayurveda, for use in Asthma, blood pressure etc. It grows in the
 dry hilly parts of Sri lanka,
 Coleus in Sri lanka .
 It has a slight camphot-like smell.

Modern rediscovery (1970s) and
commercilization
is as a fat loss medication, e.g., from companies
 in USA, Europe and also India (Hoechst Marion Roussel Limited, etc).
  In our view the research is
 is reltively poorely established.
The plant and root extracts contain the terpene-alkaloid forskoline,
which is claimed to
affect variety of important cellular functions, including inhibiting
 histamine release, relaxing muscles, increasing thyroid function,
  and increasing fat-burning activity. Selective breeding to increase
  forskolin has been successful.
  Its mechanism is
claimed to be enzymatic, via cyclic Adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), to
modify the fat metabolism of the body. Beware of possible long term bad
 side effects.
plaintes
for use as a "fat burner"
Images

Coleus plants have also been reclassified as "Solenostemon", and are well kinown
in horticulture as some varieties have coloured "rainbow foliage"
 (known as Villooda kola in sinhala).
orticoltura


Weight-Loss
déceptions
Coleus rotundifolius (Madagascar potato) Jaavaala ? – – Edible coleus

orticoltura

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Coleus amboinicus


karpuravalli


Coleus aromaticus


omavalli


Coleus aromaticus


karpuravalli

->

Colocasia Family Gahala or Haburu varieties – cempu, pantaki,chembu-kizhangu Many palce names are derived from "habur", and
"Habarala = haburu ala". See Habarala

Leaves peltate i.e., stem attached nearer to the center of the leaf, unlike in
the Habarala family: Alocasia), leaf-stalks and tubers eaten-
"Kiri-ala" (very
pale green leaves), "Kandala," "Thadala," "Kalu-ala" (leaf-stalks
purple), "Kalu-khandala" (leaf-stalks purple), "Yakutala." "Garendi-
kandala," "Gahala." "Ala-kola" or "Gahala-kola," "Thunmas-ala." The
last named is considered one of the best, producing a crop of tubers
in three or four months, as the name indicates.
See also :Traditional roots and tubers of Sri Lanka

Some of the above are further described below.
This is one of the most ancient foods of Asian people.
The "Polynesian taros" primarily all have twenty-eight chromosomes,
 while generally there is a greater concentration of 42-chromosome types in East Asia.
 It has been speculated that the 28-chromosome cultivars
 preceded the 42-chromosome types into the Pacific islands.
These "yams" have varying amounts of oxalic acid, and hence
the the roots are steeped in water overnight. The steam is allowed to escape
during cooking by prolonged boiling.
The leaves are also eaten, and here too the Oxalic acid must be
removed.

Kerala recipe
is similar to that used in Southern Sri Lanka, except that in
Sri lanka a little "Thuna-paha" (spice mixture) is often added.
Just as with Manioc, using ginger is usually avoided
with these tubers as enzymes in Ginger may act on glucosides contained in the tubers,
generating the corresponding poisonous acid.

Colocasia esculenta (common taro) Gahala, Kiri-habarala – – cempu, pantaki Widely cultivated in Sri lanka.
Images and write up  
Ethno-botanical notes.
– Colocasia nymplimfolia Vael ala, Wel ala, Yakuthala – – – Colocasia sp. Thun-mas ala, Isuru desala, Krir ala – – Listed under several sinhala names in
Traditional roots and tubers of Sri Lanka Commelina benghalensis (Tropical spiderwort) Diya Beraliya, visshaari – kanankolai, kancatam Aquatic planit is used as animal fodder and also eaten by humans as a vegetable. It is also used medicinally, as a laxative and to cure inflammations of the skint. It grows in rice paddies.

Commelina diffusa Gira Pala – – –

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Commelina benghalensis


kancatam


Commelina nudiflora


vazhapazhathi


Commiphora caudata


malaima

->

Connarus monocarpus Radaliya – – -Description
&nbsp See:Medicinal plants: traditional knowledge
 By Pravin Chandra Trivedi (I. K. International (Pvt) India).

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Convolvulus turpethum


cimai civatai

->

Corallocarpus epigaea Gopalanga – aakaasagarudan A perennial, tendril climber with a large, turnip-shaped
root and succulent, zig-zag,
glabrous and glaucous stems.- Corchorus capsularis (jute white, mallow leaves) Go~ni, ගෝනි Nadika – piratti-kirai, naruvalli The leaves are edible, while the fiber is a valuable
product used for sacks etc. It grows in topical low-lands, but it is
little exploited in Sri Lanka.
 University of Dhaka website, Jute

The word "Goni-billa", presumable arises from the use of a sack to
cover the head by goons and bandits. Corchorus olitorius (jute) Go~ni- ගෝනි – sanal, perattikkirai The fiber from this plant is not as good as from the capsularis

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Cordia dichotoma


naruvili


Cordia dichotoma


kalviricu


Cordia gharaf


narvilli


Cordia myxa

gouvernante
kalvirusu


Cordia myxa

gouvernante
viruvu

->

Cordia obliqua (Indian cherry) Bahuvara sukshmaphala- laghupichhila ? naruvili, villi Bahuvaramuraya (Kulamurippu)
Bahuvara wewa (Naruvilikkulam), colder climates,
 prefers deep moist sandy loam soils.

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Cordia wallichii


namaviri


Cordia wallichii


sidam

->

Coriandrum sativum Koththamalli – kottumalli –

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Coriandrum sativum


kottumalli

->

Corypha umbraculifera, (Talipot) Talapath, (Puskola path) Talapathra talippanai, talappam The leaves are used in traditional "pus-kola poth" writing.
Puskola Poth
Regarde aussi Images after German
text -scroll down
Coscinium fenestratum
(tree Turmeric, false Calumba
Weniwelgeta : Can we save this dwindling forest resource ?, Gunatilleke,July 2012) Wenivael gaeta, Weniwelgeta, Venivaelgata, Vaenivael gaeta,
 Baanvaelgaeta, Bang wel gata, Daruharidra, Pitadaru Maramanjal, Manjalkodi, Pasamantram, Imalam The name venivael is also found in Marathi but not in Dravidian languages.
The name "Baan vael" seems to be specific to Sinhala.
It is woody climber with a smooth bark, young shoots densely and finely yellow-tomentose;
leaves simple,
alternate, exstipulate, large.
This is a highly endangered species with a high commercial demand
and hence should be a niche agricultural
cash crop for an enterprising farmer.
voir Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 3, p133-145 (2008) by K. V. Tushar et al.
Costus speciosus (crep Ginger) Thebu, Thembhu Kushta, kemuka- canda kostam, kottam, Kudavam The tree can grow ten feet tall.
A paste of Costus, white sandalwood and dry ginger, made by grinding them down with human
milk is claimed to relieve pain when applied externally on the forehead.

Images and write up
Cotylelobium scabriusculum Namendora, Namenddara – – – Couroupita guianensis (cannon ball tree)
Lecythidaceae (Barringtonia family) Salgaha -Nagakesara ? Naagalingam tree, Kunturukkam Toponyms
Saalavanaya (Lavanai)
Ambasaalava (Sempankundu)
Saaliya weva
This tree is called Sal in Sri Lanka, while in many
Indian Languages, Shorea robusta is called "Sal". The latter
is probabaly the tree mentioned in Buddhist texts. However, the cannon-ball tree
is very common in Buddhist and Hindu temples, and may have been endemic to
the Indian subcontinent although today it is ascribed to South-American origins.
Images and write up
Regarde aussi
Shorea robusta

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Costus speciosus


kottam

->

Crateva adansonii, Crataeva religiosa, Garlic-pear tree, temple plant) Lunuwarana, Lunu varana, Lunuvarana Varuna- Marvilinga- A small tree with a grey bark, much branched, the young twigs marked prominently with leaf scars;
leaves alternate, 3-foliate, deciduous, leaflets shortly stalked.

Images and write up
Used for treatment of kidney stones and urinary problems in
traditional medicine. A typical preparation is described as follows, and claimed to be
efficacious, although NO double-blind studies have been reported.:
A very "efficacious" compound decoction in combination with an equally powerful
lithontriptic remedy is composed of Tribulus Terrestris, Gokshura or Gokatu of the
Sinhalese, and ginger, in equal quantities. Make a decoction and administer with the
aggiunta di Yavakshara (impure K2CO3, potassium carbonate) and honey.
 The bark is
reduced to ashes, which contain a quantity of alkaline matter. It is made into a solution
and boiled down again with the powdered bark, to which is added impure carbonate of potash
(Yavkshara); the solution is evaporated and the resulting powder is given with treacle in
ascites, calculus and enlargement of the abdominal viscera. The leaves or their juice are
used in the form of a decoction for swelling, and for burning sensation of the soles of
the feet. This ailment is called Rakta Vaathaya in sinhala medicine.

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Crateva magna


maavilangam


Crateva nurvala


mavilangai


Crateva nurvala


adicharanam



Crataeva religiosa
Lunuwarana

->

Crinum asiaticum (spider lilly, Grand crinum lilly) Tholabo, තොලබෝ nagadamani- sudarsana – visha moongil A large bulbous herb, about 90 cm tall with a bulb 5-10 cm diameter,
 narrowed into a neck, l5-30
cm long, clothed in old leaf sheaths; leaves simple. Caterpillar growth-
Used as an emetic. The bulb is poisonous.
Images and
write up.
Crinum defixum Heen Tholabo – – – Crinum zeylanicum Goda Manel – – –

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Crinum asiaticum


vishamungil

->

Crossandr infundibulifomis (L.) Nees (= C undulaefolia Salisb.) – – – Small undershrub found in Low-country areas. Sinhala and Tamil names unidentified.
Please send info., photos to place.names@yahoo.com Crotalaria juncea Andana Hiriya- – kuttu – Crotalaria laburnifolia,Crotalaria verrucosa (bird flower) Yak Beriya – – -A large, much branched herb Crotalaria pallida, Crotalaria spp Andanagiriya – – – Crotalaria retusa, Croton laccifer Kappetiya – kilukiluppai –

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Crotalaria retusa


potu-gally-gista


Crotalaria verrucosa


narimiratti


Crotalaria verrucosa


kilukiluppai


Croton bonplandianum


attupuntu

->

Croton tiglium (purging croton) Japala, Jayapala – Dantibija, Tintidiphala, Dravanthi, Jeyphala- nervalam, nagandi Seeds are a powerful purge. Plant used in Homeopathic
 and Ayurveda medicine.- Croton caudatus, Croton aromaticum Wel kappetiya, Vael Kaeppetiya – – – Croton megalocarpus (Croton)
Image of Croton Megalocarpus krotan-gaha – – Codiaeum Variegatum pictum is the more popular ornamental plant.
Image and write up.
Croton megalocarpus has become a more attractive candidate than Jatropha ( a variety of
Endaru) as a source of Bio-diesel.
See German-Kenyan study Cryptocarya membranacea Thavvaenna – – – Cryptocoryne walkeri Schott (water trumpet) Yatiudala – Athiudayan – Well known aquarium plant originating in Sri lanka.

Images and description


daily News Oct-2011 report Cryptolepis buchananii Kalukohola ?Vael Rukaththana ? Krishnasarva, karanta palkoti, Gopavalli, Maddankodi Kalukolladoova (Karungkodith-theevu) Cucumis melo, Cucumis callosus Kaekiri, kekiri, Gon Kekiri Karkati vellarikkay Kakirimaduwa (Kachchilamadu)
A kind of Kekiri is known as "Gaja-danthapala", p 150 of Clough&#39;s Dictionary, 1892. Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) Pipingna trapusha- vellarikkay, vellari "Gandira" is also a kind of cucumber known in rural Sri lanka.

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Cucumis trigonus


kattuttumatti


Cucumis trigonus


kommatti
->

Cucurbita maxima
Squash, pumpkin, citrouille etc. Wattakkaa, Wattakka, Wattaka, Vattakka gudayogaphala- dangari carkkaraipparanki, paranki, parangkikkaay There are many varities of this popular squash. The Sinhalese version of the
"Pampkin curry" uses browned coconut ("kalu pol"), roasted rice etc:
Watttakka cury
Wattakka Wewa (more correctly, Vattaka vaeva) is a place name,
but may be derived from the bird "vattaka".

The pumpkin figures
in Fairy tales (cinderella); it is used for Haloween lanterns,
as well as in the sinhala "raban pada" (rural
drum beats".
Uda Pala Gaththath Vattakkaa….
Bima pala gaththath Vattakkaa..
Uda pala gaththath..
bima pala gaththath..
punchi punchi gedi Vattakkaa…

The name "Vattaka Piritha" (Buddhist canon, vattaka)
 refers to the bird "vatuva", a type of quail, and not to a
pumpkin.

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Cucurbita pepo


campal pucani


Cucurbita pepo


pucani

->

Cullenia rosayroana Wal Durian, Kataboda – – See alawwatte swamp Cuminum cyminum(cumin)
Family: Umbelliferae Sooduru
The seeds are paired or as separate carpels, & 3-6mm (1/8-1/4 in) long,
 wirh a striped pattern of nine ridges and oil canals, hairy,
 straw-brown in colour, boat-shaped, tapering at ends, with tiny stalks
invisible to the eye. jira
&#39;Jira" in sanskrit means to &#39;digest&#39;.
 Classically, cumin symbolised gormandism; thus the food-loving Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius
 came to be known privately as ‘Cuminus’ shiragam, cirakam Should not be confused with caraway seed. Cumin is sharper in taste, and
the seeds are larger.
The sinhala &#39;duru&#39; is derived from the pali-sanskrit jeera for digest.
It is an essential part of Sinhalese cooking.
sweet cumin (fennel) is known as maaduru (ma-duru), while
black cumin (Nigella sativa) is &#39;kalu-duru&#39; in Sinhalese.
Sooduru seeds are about

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Cuminum cyminum


cirakam

->

Curculigo orchioides Bin Thal, Heen Bim-thal – nilappanai, kuratti – Curcuma aromatica Wal Kaha, VadaKaha – katturi mancal, kasturi-manjal – Curcuma domestica Kaha – – see Curcuma longa below. Curcuma longa (Tumeric) Kaha, Ath kaha, Mim Kaha Haridra,- mancal, Manjal Important condiment, spice and medicinal material in India and Sri Lanka.
Believed to reduce uric acid levels in the blood, reducing gout symptoms.
It is the main constituent of alternative-medicine treatments for Gout,
arthritis. Ant-cancer effects have been claimed. It contains a di-ketone which
can exist in a enol-form. A chain of nine conjugated carbon atoms linking two
benzene rings explains the yellow colour of Turmeric.
Wiki article
Tamil Nadu has the higest world production of Turmeric.
– Curcuma zedoaria (white Turmeric, zedoary root, Red Leaf Spice Ginger ) Haran kaha karchura – Poolakilangu ?-

Images and description Cuscuta reflexa

agamula neti vela, aga mula naeti vaela, Gaskuta – cuppiracaram- A leafless, twining, parasitic annual with long branched, closely twining, succulent and brittle,
glabrous, pale greenish yellow stems, sometimes dotted with red; leaves absent; flowers regular,
bisexual, small, white, scented, on short, glabrous, curved.

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Cuscuta reflexa


cuppiracaram


Cuscuta reflexa


eliccevi


Cyamopsis tetragonoloba


kancanamalitam


Cyamopsis tetragonoloba


kottavarai


Cyanotis cristata


kutirai kulampati


Cyanotis cristata


kulari

->

Cyathula ceylanica Bim karal heba – civappu nayuruvi, cirukatalati –

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Cyathula prostrata


civappu nayuruvi


Cyathula prostrata


cirukatalati

->

Cycas nathorstii
Note also C. Zeylanicus, native to Sri lanka, and the
Andamans. Cycas circinalis is found in the Indian mainland.

Images and write up
Distinguished from C. circinalis and C. sphaerica of the Indian mainland by the more robust habit, wider leaflets and larger male cones with longer and more curved apical spines on microsporophylls. Megasporophyll apices of C. nathorstii are narrowly triangular with numerous fine lateral spines extending almost to the very tip, whereas the Indian species possess broader apices with a distinct extended apical spine that is free from lateral teeth. C. nathorstii is distinguished from C. zeylanica, the other species occurring in Sri Lanka, by the more closely spaced and more chartaceous leaflets, the shorter, softer and less pilose cataphylls and lack of spongy endocarp.

Madu, මඩු, madugaha – kamappu

Cycads represent an ancient lineage whose fossil history extends over 200 million years.

For the etymology of the "Madu shrine" near Vannimava (Vayniya), see
the place-names discussion.

Cyclea barmanni Kehipiththan, Kaehipiththan – ponmucuttai ?- –

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Cyclea peltata


ponmucuttai


Cyclea peltata


malaitanki
->

Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) Sera bhutika- karenduka karppurappul, vasanapulla used in cooking, and in herbal medicine to reduce fever etc.

Images and writeup
Cymbopogon confertiflorus Mana, Maana – – – Cymbopogon nardus Heen Pangiri – – –

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Cymbopogon flexuosus


chukkunari-pillu


Cymbopogon flexuosus


sukkunari-pillu


Cymbopogon martinii


kavattam pul


Cymbopogon martinii


kavattan-pillu

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Cynometra iripa (wrinkled pot mangrove) Opulu – Kadumpuli- This small, slow growing tree only produces seeds in years of abundant
 rain. It can grow to 5 m tall-

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Cynodon dactylon


arukampul


Cynodon dactylon


arugampul


Cynoglossum zeylanicum


picinottarai


Cyperus compressus


kottikkorai


Cyperus compressus


kottukkorai

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Cyperus rotundus (nut grass, nut sedge)

Family: Cyperaceae
A perennial grass with dark green glabrous culms, growing from a system of underground tubers. Kalanduru, wammutu Musta, Mustaka muttakkacu, korai " If the ground slopes to the west and if kalanduru grass (Cyperus
rotundus) grows there, then the site is suitable for the Sudra caste."
(Mayimataya). It is an "invasive weed".

The name vammmutu is mentioned in the medieval sinhala grammar book:
Sidath sangara

Ayurvedic and Sinhala medicine uses the plant for treating fever, digestive
disorders, dysmenorrhea, wounds, bruises etc. cyperus santonici. Vel thuththiri, – – See Eragrostis atropioides and
eragrotis varaities cyperus scariosus (umbrella sedge) ? Bhadramusta, Nagaramustaka- – This is a delicate, slender small herb with deep brown aromatic tubers. It grows in a "pandura" (like a clump,
hence the english name "umbrella sedge"),
 and has tubers which have medicinal properties similar to "kalanduru", i.e.,
(cyperus rotundus)

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Cyperus rotundus


korai



Cyperus stoloniferous


purkorai

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Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes

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Dactyloctenium aegyptium


sodi


Dactyloctenium aegyptium


mutankali

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Daemia extensa, Pergularia extensa Meda-hangu, – uttamani Used as an ematic and expectorant.
However, all plant parts, especially the seeds and latex,
are often poisonous. They contain various alkaloids
and glycosides, many of which are used in medicine
and as insecticides.

Images

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Daemia extensa


veliparutti


Dalbergia sissoo


itti

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Dalzellia Ceylanica, Dalzellia Zeylanica, Wright 1852.
Ph. D Thesis by Nileena, C. B., Kerala
See image on page 29 of the above thesis. If you know the Sinhala name, Tamil name etc., write to place.names@yahoo.com – – Aquatic plant – Submerged rheophytes;
Terniola zeylanica, Lawis Zeylanica are often cited together. If you know the Sinhala/tamil name, write to place.names@yahoo.com

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Datura Alba (Devil&#39;s trumpet)
, D. metel, etc.,

famille Solanaceae
Some plants previously included as Daturas are now put in a distinct genus Brugmansia {this differs in being woody, with shrubs or small trees, and pendulous flowers}. Other related genera are Hyoscyamus et Atropa.

woody, stalked, leafy annuals and short-lived perennials grows up to 2 meters in height.
The leaves are alternate, 10-20 cm long and 5–18 cm broad, with a lobed or toothed margin.
The flowers are erect or spreading (not pendulous like in Brugmansiae)
 trumpet-shaped, 5-20 cm long and 4-12 cm broad at the mouth;
colors vary from white to yellow, pink, and pale purple.
 The fruit is a spiny capsule 4-10 cm long and 2-6 cm broad, splitting
 when ripe to disperse numerous seeds.

Attana, Sudu Attana, ela attana
There are many varieties of Aththana, and one of them is called
"Kok-aththana because of the prominent hook-like spikes ("koku" in sinhala) or spines on its fruit.
These spikes are a mechanism for seed dispersal.

Placenames like "Aththanaveva" (Achchcankulam", or

Kokaththana-kulama or Kokachchankulam

are found in the North and East of Sri Lanka.
Closer to Colombo, we have "Aththana-galla", the home-base
of the Bandaranaike political family. Datura, sveta-dhaturah (i.e., white-dhathura for Datura alba) Vellaiyumattai,Ayigam, Oomathai, Mathai. Mattai

The Tamil names, "-yumattai", "Oomathai", "-mattai" ஊமத்தை
are clearly derived from the words of the "Sanskrit-Pali-Prakrit-Sinhala"- language
group where "Unmaada", or "Matha", "Madya", mean hallucination, intoxication etc.

Datura species contain atropine and related alkaloids. Hallucinatory very
poisonous drug.
Datura is a classic "witches&#39; weed," along with deadly nightshade, henbane, et mandragora. Most parts of the plant contain toxic hallucinogens, and Datura is known for causing delirious states and death. It was a common ingredient of "love potions and witches&#39; brews".

Datura wrightii or Sacred Datura, imges and write up

Datura plants adapt by change size of plant, leaf, and size of flowers, depending on location. The same species, when growing in a half-shady damp location can develop into a magnificent flowering bush half a meter high, but in a very dry location will only form a thin little plant a few centimeters high, with tiny flowers and miniature leaves.

The name has been mis-spelt as "Datra metal" in some Internet locations.

Datura fastuosa Attana, Thunbo Aththana dhattura adukku-mattai See Datura Alba Datura stramonium Aththana Datura umattai See Datura Alba for more details Daucus carota, Apiaceae family. (Wild carrot)

Similar in appearance, but different from it is
the poisonous "Hemlock". Conium maculatum also of the Apiaceae family.
The "Hemlock" does not have the smell of the carrot plant.

Val Kaerat – mancalmullanki, kartkilanku The vegetable "carrots" are a subspecies or cultivar of this, known as
Daucus carota subsp. sativus.

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Debregeasia longifolia


mayilati#


Delonix elata


vatanarayanan


Delonix regia


mayil konrai


Delonix regia


ukaramaram

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Dendrobium Crumeratrum (Pigeon orchid) Parevi mal – – A very common, white, fragrant
 orchid grown in coconut husks attached to
coconut tree trunks.  
 with acknowledgment to "beautiful Orchids Dendrobium maccarthiae Vesak mal – – One of the most colorful of the seven Dendrobiums native to SL.
It was named after Ms. MacCarthy, wife of Colonial Secy, 1855, (
and Mr. MacCarthy has a road in Colombo named after him.)
See Christie Alwis: "beautiful Orchids

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Dendrocalamus strictus


kattumunkil


Dendrophthoe falcata


pulluri

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Dendrophthoe falcata Ehatu Mal- – pulluruvi – Derris indica, Millettia pinnata , Pongamia pinnata (Indian Beech Tree) Mal karanda ? Naktamaala pungam, Pungai Images and write up 1

Images and write up 2
Could this have been the ancient "Puvangu tree", now usually identified as Aglaia roxburghiana ? Derris canarensis, deriss skandens,
Derris parviflora, Brachypterum elegans, Deguelia parviflora, Pterocarpus Parviflorus
 (Hog creeper) Diya Kala Wel, Diyakala Vael, Sudu Kala Vael – kotippunku The kalu Kala vael and sudu Kala vael are two
varieties.
The name Derris scandens probably means "leathe-covered (pods) and sprawling".
Derris parviflora is a woody climber growing up to around ten meters on the tree-
  Image Desmodium gangeticum Sulvaenna, Undupiyaliya – pulladi A slender under-shrub, with cylindrical, nearly
 glabrous stems and hairy young parts;
leaves alternate, stipulate.
Used in the herbal medicinal tonic Dashamoola aristaya

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Desmodium gangeticum


pullati

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Desmodium gyrans Pranajeewa, Praanajeeva – – – Desmodium heterocarpon Maha undupiyali – pullati – Desmodium triflorum
Image
Undupialli, Heen undupialli – – -A very small perennial herb, 15-45 cm long with numerous, long,, slender, prostrate branches
rooting at nodes, clothed with white spreading hairs; leaves small, alternate, stipulate, trifoliate.- Dialium ovoideum Gal Siyambala – – A serine inhibitor has been extracted from the seeds of this "wild-tamarind-like" species –Dichrostachys cinerea (Marabou shrub, Sickle bush, chinese lamtern tree) mal-Andara
Regarde aussi Acacia catechu Bahuvaraka, Virtaru vitattalai, vedathalam It is native to Africa and the Asian tropic. Originally
 used as an ornamental mimosa-like plant but turned invasive, e.g., in Cuba.
It has been claimed that Scottish scientists have found
this shrub to be a valuable source of activated charcoal which
 is much better in quality (finer grain size)
than the activated charcoal from oconut and much cheaper as well.
 Strathclyde University scientists end marabu weed nightmare
However, its use as a possible charcoal source seems to have been known in Cuba,
And in 2011 charcoal exports reached a value of 6 million USD:
Charcoal Making in Cuba

toponimi
Andaradoova (Vidataltivu)
Andaravala (Vidatalpalai)

Dillenia indica Hondapara, Wampara Ruvya raisin A moderate-sized, round-headed tree with a cinnamon-brown bark;
 leaves very large, closely placed. Dillenia retusa Goda Para – – – , , Dilivaria illicifolia Katu Ikili, Vael Ikiri – Kazhuthai Mulli, Kalutaamul See also Trapa bicornis = ikiliya, related to mangroves.
Placename: Katukiliyavala (Kalutavalai) Achyranthes aspera Karal Heba, Karak haeba, kinihi
The name &#39;kinihi&#39; is said to mean &#39;Kini=sore, &#39;ha=removes&#39;, and
is said to remove sores. Apamarga, Khara-manjar nayuruvi Wildly growing weed, found in swampy soil, up to one metee high, flowers reddish-green,
Used in incantations.believed to be a talisman to
 safeguard against scorpions and snakes –

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Dillenia indica

bhavya
akku


Dillenia pentagyna

aksikiphala
naiteku


Dillenia pentagyna

punnaga
pinnai 1
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Dimarphocalyx glabellus Weli Wanna, Vaeli Vaenna – – – Dimocarpus longan MORA – cempuvan, Murali, Nurai – Dimocarpus longan Mora – Kaduppuvam, cempuvam – Dioscorea Alata, D. atropurpurea, D. sativa Del.
 (king Yam, Purple yam, Water Yam, greater yam, Winged yam) Hingurala, Raja-ala (Raajaala), Anjili-ala, kahata-ala, Kiri Kondol, Kiri ala, Ini ala, Ley dantha, Dandila, rathu-ala,
Maha vael ala (Mha vel ala) – kayvalli, Raasa-valli, Khatangal, Peruvalli The many Sinhala names are for slightly different cultivars.
It is a herbaceous vine, twining from from massive underground
tuber. Stems to 10 m (30 ft) or more in length, freely branching above; internodes square
in cross section, with corners compressed into "wings", these often red-purple tinged.
Aerial tubers (bulbils) formed in leaf axils.
Fruit a 3-parted capsule; seeds winged.

This tuber has ~7-8% protein, and 75-85% starch. According to Wanasundera et al, la
Vitamin C content of the yam tubers ranged from 13.0 to 24.7 mg/100 g fresh weight. The results showed yams to be reasonably good sources of minerals. Phytic acid contents of the yams were low, with values ranging from 58.6 to 198.0 mg/100 g dry matter. Total oxalate levels in yam tubers were found to be in the range of 486–781 mg/100 g dry matter, but may not constitute a nutritional concern since 50–75% of the oxalates were in the water-soluble form. The overall results are suggestive of the nutritional superiority of yams compared to other tropical root crops
See Wanasundera and Ravindran,

Canadian studies-III by Jayakody et al  
Canadian studies-II

Peradeniya study of Dioscora yams  
Disoscorea cultivation – Sri Lanka Dept. of Agriculture, notes and images

Dioscorea aquaticus raevul-puruk-wila – – – Dioscorea Esculanta Kukulala, Java-ala (Jawala), Nattala, Siriwalli, Kuda Vael ala (Kuda vel ala) – kayvalli, Thirivalli See write up on Dioscorea Alata.
Properties are very similar. The starch granules
(microscopic observation) are differently shaped in
different cultivars.

Dioscorea bulbifera Udala – kayvalli, kattuvalli, Combuvalli (?) See write up on Dioscorea Alata.
This tuber has small or absent underground
tubers, more numerous aerial tubers, and alternate leaves Dioscorea longifolius Gas Kothala – – Listed in Charles Pridham. Dioscorea obouneta Hiritha-ala, Jamburala – – See write up on Dioscorea Alata Dioscorea oppositifolia, Diosorea Villosa (Wild yam, Chinese Yam) Kondol – varivalli, Kavala-kodi,Verrilaivalli A varaiety of Kondol, found in N. America as well. and has been of pharmaceutical interest as it
contains saponins which can be chemically converted to steroids (progesterone -a contraceptive, cortisone etc.).
See images  
See write up on Dioscorea Alata Dioscorea paniculatus Puruk-wila – – -See Charles Pridham. Dioscorea Rotundata (African Disocora) Thambala – Kotakavalli,Urumpirei See write up on Dioscorea Alata Dioscorea pentaphylla, D. triphilla (five-leaf yam) Kondol, Katuala, Katuwa-ala – kattuvalli, Kaattukkaayvalli

Image
See write up on Dioscorea Alata
It has been claimed that It is probable that dioscorea yams, such as Dioscorea spicata, D. pentaphylla and D. oppositifolia were staples in the diet, as they were among South Asian hunters and gatherers in recent times.,
e.g., Deraniyagala et al, International Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences, Vol. 5,
p. 277 (1998)
Diospyros family (EBENACEAE) (Ebony/Parsimmon family Kaluvara family – – The Diospyros are a very valuable group of timber trees. They are also a favoured choice
as commemorative trees. Some
related trees are in the Maba — classification., reclassified in 1981 by
Kostermans.
An authoritative study (2006) of the Genus Diospyros L. has been carried
out by B. K. L. Wickramasinghe (Open University Nawala) and T. Herat.
 Dyospyros wood species in SL

For systematics of Diospyros, see
Wallnofer:
 The Biology and Systematics of Ebenaceae: a Review
Diospyros atrata Kalu Kenda – Gusvakendu Timber tree, Ebony family.
Images and short discrip.

Diospyros attenuata, c.f, D.melanoxylon D. ebenaster (?) Kadumberiya, Kaluvaella – – IUCN redlisted Diospyros chaetocarpa, c.f., Diospyros oppositifolia Kalu Madiriya – – Valued Timber tree.
The chemistry of the bark has been studied at Peradeniya Univwersity
under Sultan Bawa&#39;s natural products effort in the 1970s.
We haven&#39;t found souitable images. Diospyros condelleana, Disopyros Thwaitesii Ho-madiriya, Ho Maediriya – – Valued Timber tree (Ebenaceae).
We haven&#39;t found suitable images. Diospyros ebenum (Ebony, Ceylon Persimmon) Kaluvara, Kaluwara – – Valued timber tree, produces the best Ebony
Image and plant profile  
Valued in cabinatry and french furniture:
 An ebony cabinet Diospyros embryopteris, Embryopteris glutinifera Thimbiri, thiburu, Kollan gaha – Panichchai See also, p 791 0f B. Clough;
Timber tree (Ebenaceae).
We haven&#39;t found suitable images. Diospyros ferrea, Hik-ul-Haenda – –

Wickramasinhge et al, on Diospyros …
see also under Maba buxifolia which is sometimes claimed
to be a variety of this tree (?).
 Kalu Habaraliya
For systematics of Diospyros, see
Wallnofer: The Biology and Systematics of Ebenaceae: a Review Diospyros melanoxylon (Jungle-fire tree) Beedi, Bidi, Kuduberiya, Kadduberiya kendu ? karai – The leaf is used to "wrap" tobacco to make beedi,
 a cheap leaf smoke popular in the malabar coast,
 and brought to Sri lanka by
the Indian "Malabar Tamil" labour recruited during the late portuguese period to
work in tobacco plantations in Jaffna (Jaapanaya).
Known as tendu patta in India, this is
taxed by Maoist insugents in India to raise revenue.
South asia
intellience report

Beedi, images and write up

Images of Jungle-fire tree Diospyros malabarica, D. embryopteris, D. glutinosa Timbiri, thinduka – thumbai The tree exudes a glutinous substance used for caulking and sealing
boats in the traditional way. It is not attacked by insects. la
unripe fruit is rich in tannins and used for curing nets, leather etc.
Clough&#39;s 19th century dictionary lists the name "Thinduka".

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Diospyros melanoxylon


tumpili


Diospyros montana


vakkanathi


Diospyros montana


vakkanai

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Diospyros oocarpa Kalukadumberiya – vekurakalimaram – Diospyros oppositifolia Kalumediriya, Kalumaediriya, Kadumberiya – – IUCN redlisted- Diospyros Ovilfolia KunuMaella – – – Diospyros quaesita D. hirsuta, (Calamander wood) Kulu maediriya, kalu-medhiriya, Kadumberiya – – IUCN redlisted Diospyros toposia Kahakaela,කහකෑල – – See p. 113 of B. Clough

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Diplocyclos palmatus


sivalingakkay


Diplocyclos palmatus


iyvirali


Dipteracanthus patulus


nittinaviralkurittan
->

Dipteracanthus ringens Nil Puruk – – – Dipterocarpus hispidus Boo-hora – – A large tree, similar to "Hora" but with a rougher bark. Dipterocarpus glandulosus Dorana – – A large tree. about 55 m tall with a straight trunk, pale grey bark flaking off irregularly. IUCN red listed. Dipteroacarpus Zelanicus Hora –

(challani, yennar, enneymaram, used in S. India
 for a related tree) toponimi
Horagolla (Norochcholai, Nuraicholai),
(south)
Horagala,
Horagampita,
Horagampitiya,
Horagoda,
Horangalla,
Horangolla,
Horapawita,
Horawala,
Horawinna,
Horanduwa,
 etc.
(uva)
Horabokka,
Horabora,
Horadaruwa,
Horadoruwa ,
Horadoruwwa,
Horagune ,
Horambuwa,
Horatota,
(West)
Horagala,
Horagaslanga,
Horagasmulla,
Horagolla,
Horahena,
Horana,
Horanpella,
Horape,
Horawala,
Horetuduwa,
(Sabara)
Horahena,
Horahinella,
Horaketiya,
Horamula,
Horanekarakanda,
Horangala,
Horawinna,
(Vayamba)
Horagas-agare,
Horagolla,
Horakandawila,
Horakele,
Horambawa,
Horamune,
Horatepola,
Horawadunna,
Horombawa,
Horombugama,
Horombuwa,
(Uthuru-maeda)
Horapola,
Horawapotana,
Horiwila,
Horombuwagama,
Horowtibbewewa,
Horowupotana,
Horowutibbawewa,
Horuwila,
(Central)
Horagahapitiya,
Horakada,
Noragalla

Found in srilankan forests including Sinharaja.
Rain-Forest in Ceylon, John R. Baker, Kew Gardens 1938

Images of a closely related tree, Dipterocarpus gracilis
are given below:
Images Dodonaea viscosa Eta Wararalla, Aeta Vaeralla- – virali –

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Dodonaea viscosa


velari

->

Dolichandrone spathacea, syn. Spathodea longiflora P. Beauv diya -danga – kaliyacca –

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Dolichandrone falcata


kattuvarucham


Dolichos falcatus


pampumoccai

->

Dolichos biflorus, Macrotyloma uniflorum (horse gram) Kollu
see under Macrotyloma uniflorum.
Good alternative to `parippu&#39;. – Kollu paruppu, Kulad An annual hairy herb with nearly erect stems and climbing branches; leaves compound. trifoliate,
leaflets nearly equal, often lobed.

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Dolichos lablab


avarai


Drosera indica


rutanti


Drosera indica


nalakanni

->

  • Doona cordifolia, Shorea cordifolia, Shorea oblongifolia
  • D. gardneri
  • Doona Nervosa
  • D. Ovifolia
  • Doona macrophalla (thw.)
  • D. Trapezifolia
  • D. Venulosa
  • D. Zeylanicus
  • Potathala, Beraliya
  • Rat Dun
  • Kotikan beraliya
  • Thinniya Dun
  • Honda belaiya, kana-beraliya, maha beraliya
  • Beraliya
  • Yakahulu Dun
  • Dun

Doona cordifolia and Donna Zeylanicus
produce resins which were
used to make varnishes. The seeds are roasted and eaten.
We haven&#39; found any images.
Most of these are IUCN red listed.

Some Hopea species are also named Beraliya, e Dun in sinhala.

– Dovyalis hebecarpa (Ceylon Gooseberry) Kitaembilla, Kithaembilla, Kitembilla, Ketembilla, – kocu vetti Endemic to Sri Lanka. Horticulturists have created a thornless of of
this gooseberry which is used in jellies and jams.
Picture and write up
Drosera indica (sundew) Kandulessa, kandulaessa – kocu vetti ; Easily distinguished from the other species by its linear leaves.
Image Drosera peltata Pethi-Kandulessa, Pethi-kandulaessa – kocu vetti Insectivorus plant, ornamental Herb with flowering stems to 50 cm high.
Leaves usually in a flat basal rosette and cauline-
Charles Darwin drew attention to these plants in 1875
Link to
Review article in J. Exptl Botany
Drymoglossum piloselloides (penny fern, Dragon scales) Kasipethi, Kaasipethi – – Grows on coconut tree trunks etc. it is one of the most common epiphytic ferns in the lowlands of Southeast Asia.

Images and write up

It is used in "Kaedum-Bindung"(Orthpedic) poultices in Sri Lanka.

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Drypetes roxburghii


vicaranai


Drypetes roxburghii


kattuppacceri maram

->

Drypetes sepiaria Veera, Wira, Weera – –

Veeragolla (Veerancholai)
"Gal Veera" is a fruit-plant endemic to Sri Lanka. Dregea volubilis Kiri Anguna – – A very large, twining shrub with long, glabrous branches leaves simple, opposite. Drsmos elegans, Dresmos elegans Kudu Mirissa – – – Drymaria quercifolia Benduru – – – Drypetes sepiaria Weera, Veera – – – Durio zibethinus Dooriyan – – – Dyschoriste erecta (Bum. f.) Kuntze(= Calophanes nagchana Nees) – – paduwan- Perennial dry-zone, shrub-like. There is also a D. madurensis (Burrn. f.) Kuntze
(= Calophanes littoralis And.)
known in Tamil as paraddai.

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes

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Macaranga indica


tempuram

->

Maba buxifolia,
Diospyros ebenoides Kosterm (Bantulino Bonsai, sea ebony) kalu-habaraliya, Kalu habaraliya – Irambali, Tella alli
The name "Tella alli" is
used in the Andra form of Tamil ("andara demala"), closely related to Telegu. This tree (Ebenaceae) is mentioned in B. Clough&#39;s 1892 dictionary. This is an ebony/pasimmon/satinwood
group member
and found in Sri lanka&#39;s dry zone. It is also a popular Bonsai plant (Bantulino Bonsai).
Photos of Maba buxifolia from the
Ampare&#39; region, collected in Sept. 2010 (courtesy Dr. Shantha Abeyawickrama) are available.
Maba buxifolia 1  
Maba buxifolia 2
Description from Andra Predesh
a Bantulinao Bonsai
Thwaites(1864) recognized three varieties, Maba buxifolia
var. ebenus Thw., var. microphylla Thw.
, e var. angustifolia Thw., and claimed that
these three varieties were closely related or connected together by
 intermediate forms thereby representing a variable species with broad limits.
Kostermans (in 1981) named these varieties as Diospyros ebenoides Kosterm.,
 Diospyros nummulariifolia Kosterm
. et Diospyros rheophytica Kosterm. respectively.

Thus a variation of this plant, with smaller leaves, and
more supple than a tree, is probably
Maba buxifolia var. microphylla Thwaites
We have a specimen from Dr. Shantha Abeywickrama:
This should be compared with the African variety in the nummularia subspecies:

Diospyros nummularia Brenan

Currently, we have no images of Diospyros rheophytica Kosterm.

The semi-climber versions of Maba buxifolia have no well-established sinhala names. Judging by what local
correspondents have indicated, it may have patois names like "Vael-habaraliya" වැල්-හබරලිය,
or "kōtu habaraliya". Here "kōtu" means "twig-like" in Sinhala, with the "o" sound as in
bōnus", and that does indeed describe
the plant better than the word "vael".

Note that the name is "- habaraliya" and not "habarala».
The name "Habarala" is loosely used in Sinhala for
Taro-like plant varieties of Alocasia, Colacasia et Xanthosoma.
see Habarala

Macaranga peltata Keanda – – vattakkanni, vattattamarai The leaves are used to wrap jaggery, haelapa and other sweetmeats.
A small tree with stout, green branchlets covered with a glaucous bloom and marked with large leaf
and stipule scars when young; leaves simple, alternate, very large, 22.5 cm long,broadly ovate.- Maclura pomiferaOsaga orange, Hedge apple
Mulberry family
Image and discription
Named after the American Indian tribe &#39;Osaga&#39;. Not found in Sri lanka (as far as we are aware); if you observe it please write to place.names@yahoo.com – – Valued for its wood A small tree that can be grown in Sri Lanka, but it is not known in SL. It is used in the USA as a hedge plant, and in the great Plains for soil conservation.
Trees bear the big, bumpy fruits (not edible, or barely edible) known as Osage oranges. The seeds are edible.
This tree is not related to the citrus. Macrotyloma uniflorum, Dolichos biflorus (Hotse gram, cowpea)
Family: Fabaceae Kollu
This type of pea has as much nutrients as `parrippu&#39; (Dahl), and
unlike Dahl (lentils), it may be grown quite easily in Sri Lanka, and can be harvested in three months. Horse-gram sprouts are also eaten. Kulatha Kala
The cowpea is mentioned in Ayurveda and taken as a warm soup
for coughs, rheumatism, peptic ulcers and other ailments. Kananm (Kaanam), Kollu-parappu Small scale cultivation in Uva province and in the Vanni.
The horse gram needs more soaking than lentils. Then it can be cooked in
a pan by heating with onions, egg plant, Maldive fish, seasonings and a dash
 of coconut oil. It can also be eaten lioke green gram (Mung aeta).
– Madhuca longifolia, Bassia Longifolia, Madhuca latifolia, Madhuca fulva (Honey tree) Mee, madupa, Meepa, මී ගහ

There are several types of very similar looking Mee varaieties.
The seeds are used to extract "mee thel" (oil), while the flowers are eaten and also
used in herbal drinks. All parts of the tree are used in herbal medicinal preparations.
See the write up in a publication by the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore:

Madhuca species, images and discussion

madhuka iluppai, இலுப்பை iluppai ennai

The name Madhupa-theetha is mentioned in the Mahavamsa comme le
harbour of entry of the Maagha invaders. The Magha invasion was
characterized by unparallelled brutality, terminating the Anuradahpura period,
 as well as conversion of
even the place names directly into Malayalam forms. Thus Meepathota
was directly replaced by
இலுப்பை க்கடவை
 i.e.,
Illupaikadavai, Giranikka by Killinochchi, கிளிநொச்சி etc.
Such names have existed
along side the Sinhalese names. After the rise and fall of Sankili, the
Portugeues, the Dutch and the arrival of Malabar Tamils (to
work the tobacco and other crops, Dutch period) and english survey maps,
the tamilized names began to
take firmer hold. With the diffusion of
 Tamil usage along the
coast, the form "Illupaikadavi" has gained prominance over "meepathota". This was
an important naval battle site during the LTTE wars. See
Map of the North-Eastern front -Eelam war IV

Place names referring to "Mee"
Meegamuwa (Neerkozimpu)   (Negambo)
Meepathota, Madhupatheetha   (Iluppaikadavai),
Southern P: Meegaha-beraliya,
Meepawala, Meepawela, Meepe, Meetiyagoda, meewalapataha,
Sabara P: Meedeniya,
Meegasthaenna, Meeduma, Meegahawela
Uva P: Meegahawela;
Western P.: Meegaspitiya,
Meemana, Meerimulla, Meethotamulla,
North-Western P.:
Meegas-mulle-weva, Meegasweva, Meekandawewa,Meewellawa,
Central P., Meepitiya
etc.

Madhuca indica Urulumee, Hurulu Mee – – –

<! –

Mallotus philippensis


kamala


Mallotus philippensis


kapila


Mallotus repandus


konalilai


Mallotus repandus


konalilal


Mallotus rhamnifolius


marai-yirdiyam
->
Malaluca leucadendron Lothsumbul, RothImbul – – – Mallotus eriocarpus Val Kappetiya, Wal Kappetiya – – – Mallotus tetracoccus Boo kenda, Bu Kaenda – – – Mangifera indica, Mangifera foetida Mee Amba, amba amra, sahakara Ma, Mamaram, Amiram, Mangai AMBAVATHTHANA (Ammivaittan)
AMBAGAMA (Ampakamam), Ambagaskolla (Kokumarankuli) Mangifera zeylanica Atamba, Aetamba, amba Amara Mangai, (manga in Malayalam)

It is said that Buddha himself rested and meditated with his
 fellow monks in the peaceful tranquility of lush mango groves
  in places such as Amrapali and Mahachunda.
The sinhala “amba" may have come from the pali word “ambha",
which is itself related to the Sanskrit "amara".

mango trees are mentioned in the Mahavamsa (5th century CE) in
referring to various historical events – e.g., arrival of Mahinda,
during the time of Asoka.
The Munnesvaram temple respected an ancient Sinhala Buddhist
rite known as "Amba-vidamana" even up to the late 19th century,
possibly related to the goddess Pattini treated as a Buddhist
divine spirit.
However, with the rise of Tamil Nationalism and Shaivisam (c.f.,
associated with Arumugam Navalaar), a Shiavite festival known as
"Vettaitiruvilar" (i.e, hunting festival)came to be imposed
at the Munnesvaram Temple, eradicating some of these symbols of
quai-Buddhist practice. Further Saivite characteristics were added
in 1947 by the inclusion of processions of 63 munis and dancing Shiva
(Natesar). Similarly, efforts were taken to fell a Bo tree growing
in the temple premises, in spite of the opposition of many local people
who were Buddhists, as well as many Hindus (see also, Rohan Bastin:
Domain of constant excess – plural worship at the Munneswaram Temples, Berghan
Books, 2002).

Manihot utilissima, Manihot esculenta (Manioc, Cassava, Tapioca) Man(g)nokka kalpakandah- darukandah maravaati, maravalli, al-vallik-kizhangu It is one of many plants which manufactures a type of cyanide
 to deter animals who might want to eat it. The cyanide is released as
 hydrocyanic acid
 and goes away with the water vapour when boiled.
  In Sri Lanka, manioc is never eaten with any ginger products,
as it is claimed that this leads to poisoning. Manioc has a cyanogenic glucoside (CyG),
which is decomposed by the enzyme Linamarase forming poisonous hydrocyanic acid
(prussic aid), denoted by the chemical formula HCN. This was also the
poison used in the suicide kuppi of the Tamil Tigers.
The enzyme is released when the tubers are cut, or when the leaves of the plant are crushed.
However, HCN volatilizes with steam when the tubers are boiled in an open pot. The HCN
can also be leached out in a water tank for about two days, as done in Africa.
(See RODNEY,D., et al., 1978, The effects of simple Processing on
 the cyanide content of Cassava chips, in J. Food Tech., T.P. 1, 13 : 299)
Ginger contains compounds
 capable of releasing hydrocyanic acid
from the glycoside ( e.g., Kodagoda N, Marcus V, Ambalavaner S. Some
observations on the liberation of hydrogen cyanide
from manioc.
Proceedings of the Annual Sessions
of the Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement
of Science 1973; 1: 38.). Hence it is best to avoid Ginger
avec Manioc, Gahala, Habarala, Hondala and other tubers which
contain glucosid-type compounds.

Manioc which contains B17 vitamin has also been claimed to be an
 anti-cancer agent. These are purely anecdotal unverified claims.
 see however
Tapioca
  treatment for cancer
, e
Cynthiya Jayasuriya. Sunday Observer, July 2011 Manilkara hexandra Palu rajadana- toit ouvrant

Paludohona (Palayadithona)
Paluraajaweva (Palaiyatisirukkulam)
Palugama (Palukamam)
Sirirpalugama (Thirupalugamam) Manilkara zapota van Royen, Manilkara achras Fosb. Sapodilla – toit ouvrant – Manilkara zapotilla Gilly Sapadilla – cimaiyiluppai –

<! –Maranta arundinacea


kukai niru


Maranta arundinacea


aruruttukkilangu

->
Mappia ovata rata-hinguru – – Clough p 152 Marsdenia tenacissima
Threatened species, IUCN red list Maruvadul, Muruwadul – – A large shrubby. twining plant with stout. bluntly angular. densely velvety and hairy branches
leaves simple serv large. opposite. l5-l 7.5 cm long and nearly as wide, deeply cordate with
rounded lobes at base.- Maytenus annua Naga Barana, naaga Barana – – – Maytenus emarginata ?Katukilla?, Katu-dang ? Kankera? kattangi Tree of shrubland or dry area. This is a scared trea in Tamil nadu.
 It is a small, compact tree, 3-5 m. high; young branches purple, often spiny, with
leaves and flowers on the spines. common in open field in semi arid area. Very
hardy plant. This has been mistakenly identified as Katupila
which is also a thorny bush with white berries. The berries of Martenus E. Je ne suis pas
as white. See
Image

->

Martynia diandra Naga-darana – – Reputed in Sri lanka to be a remedy for snake-bites. Medinila fuchsioides

Family Melastomataceae Laenthaerum-mal, Lantharum mal – – Image and notes, Knuckles area- Melastoma malabathricum Maha Bovitiya – kadallai – Melia azadirachta Lunu Midella – tuttai, veppamaram, malaivembu –

<! –

Melia dubiah
Lunumidella



Melia composita


masaveppu


Melia composita


malaivembu

->

Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) Pangiri thala, Paengiri thalaa ? – – Not native to Sri lanka, Mint family Lamiaceae, native
to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region.
It contains eugenol (as also found in cloves). It is an antibacterial and
it is also used in aromatherapy, herbal teas etc.
Cream used in the treatment of genital or oral herpes.

Images and write up

<! –


Melothria heterophylla


kar-kovai


Melothria maderaspatana


mucumucukkai


Melothria perpusilla


pattiramatantai
->

Meliosma pinnata Ael Baedda – – – Memecylon edule, Memecylon umbellatum) Korakaha anjani- kaca The Korakaha (Memecylon umbellatum) is a lovely bush and it also has an antiseptic value.
 In the traditional paddy threshing floor, broomstick were made with Korakaha sticks- Memecylon grande Daedi Kaha – – – Mentha auricularia synonym of Pogostemon auricularius (L.) Haema-nilla – – Erect herb, leaves oblonmg, flowers red, mint family. Mentha haplocalyx (Corn Mint, Chinese mint) Kotu Minchi, Cheena minchi – – Used in Chinese herbal medicine, Corn Mint is a treatment for colds,
 and sore throats, mouth, and tongue and even toothaches and measles.
 It promotes sweating, break up congestion.
 It is also used to treat diarrhea, and even H1N1-flu
 Chinese herbal and swine flu
 (see article in the Hindu, Nov. 2009) Mentha piperita (Peppermint, curled mint) saera-Minchi, Paparamintha Paparamintha Pudina Used in medicine and in flavouring of foods:
   * Peppermint (active ingredient: menthol) has a soothing effect
     on irritant skin caused by hives, poison ivy, or poison oak, insect bite.
    * When applied to the forehead and temples reduces headache.
    * Peppermint is an effective decongestants, expectorant, soothing and calming for sore throats and dry coughs.
    * Peppermint help to relieve painful cramps as it relaxes muscles during menstrual periods in females.
    * Peppermint relaxes the muscles during digestion..
    * reduce swelling and inflammation from bruises.
    * Used in pharmacy to disguise the unpleasant taste of other medicines. Mentha perilloides Ham Kollankola;
however, Perilla ocymoides is Wal Kollankola? – – -sedative, mild purge Mentha sylvestris (Wild Mint) Minchi Pudina, Putiha Putina – Used in medicine and in flavouring of foods

<! –
Memecylon umbellatum


kaya


Merremia emarginata


musakaparni


Merremia emarginata


nilakkuntal

->

Merremia tridentata Heen Maaduvael – tirippanpul, auvaiyar kundal – Merremia umbellata Kiri maduvael – – – Mertensia dichtoma Vil kakilla, Vil Kaekilla – – Image Messua nagassarium (Iron wood) Naa, Na gaha.
Ironwood, Messua nagassarium, is associated with
 many shrines to God Natha found in Sri lanka; examples being the 5th century
 Damingamuwa Natha devala (kalutara district, %th century), the Dodanwala devala (Kandy, Yatinuwara Maedapalaatha), more recent: Dambuluwana Sri
 Nagapushparamaya, Ratnapura (on the bank of the River Kalu Ganga nagakesarah- Peri

See the discussion under the place name Nalluruva, Nallur.
The tree is some times referred to as the
National Tree of Sri Lanka. Mesua ferrea Na, Naa nagakesarah- nagapuspa nangu, cirunakappu Naaoya (Peraru), this is sometimes referred to
 as the national tree of Sri Lanka,
and is svery similar to Messua nagassarium. Mesua Shorea, Doona congestiflora Nadoon, Naedun – Nirnaval?- large tree,
typically found in Sri lanka&#39;s forests, including Sinha Raja. Mesua stylosa Suvanda

This species has white flowers similar to mesua ferrea with a very pleasant smell.
It is found grown in the Gampaha (Henarathgoda) Botanical Gardens and the Royal Botanical Gardens Peradeniya.

– – Same family as the Naa tree.
Walawwewatte swamp

<! –
Meyna laxiflora


manakkarai
–->

Michelia champaca Sapu, Ginisapu campaka- campanki, canpakam – Michelia nilagirica Wana Sapu, vana sapu – vanacampakam –

<! –

Michelia nilagirica

-</
kattu canpakam

->

Michania Scandens Maruvel, Maruvael – – – Micrcos paniculata Keheliya, Keliya – – – Micromelum ceylanicum wight, Micromelum minutum Val Karapincha, Karapincha – – Listed in the University of Miami Plant anatomy archive:
Archived image and notes Milia azidarachta Hik-kohomba – Malai-vempu –

<! –
Millingtonia hortensis


macippaccopitam


Millingtonia hortensis


kattumalli
->

Mimosa catechu Kihiri – Karuvel Kihiriwella (Kathiraveli)
Kihirikanda (Kudiramalai) Mimosa cinerea, synonym Dichrostachys cinerea type of Andara – – see under Dichrostachys cinerea Mimosa octandraa rath-thana – – a red grass (B. Clough, 1896) Mimosa pudica
Touch-me-not Plant
Image and Note, Kew gardens Nidi Kumba.
This is the &#39;common" nidikumba" of Sri Lanka. lajjalu- samanga,

Used in Ayurveda.

ilaccaki, tottalvati, Thotta-siningi An ornamental plant in the west. It is treated as a weed in Sri Lanka.
The sensitivity of the plant is not due to existence of a `nervous system&#39;, but due to
rapid movement of water from cells under a stimulus, exposing sharp thorns that
deter cattle and other feeders. Mimosa pigra
Lalith Gunasekera&#39;s article, 2011, with images and write up.
family: Fabaceae
Write uo and Images Yoda-Nidi-Kumba -? periya-ilaccaki,periya-tottalvati First recorded in Sl in 1997.
This is slower to react to stimuli than mimosa pudica. It is a giant" species, and is considered
to be very invasive. It forms dense, thorny impenetrable thickets particularly in wet areas. Mimusops elengi Moonamal Vakula, bakula, kesara magizha,magilam Mahiyapitiya (Mahiappitti)
Vakulavaedda(Mahilaettuvaan) Mimusops indica Palu – Paalai

Paludohona (Palayadithona)
Paluraajaweva (Palaiyatisirukkulam)
Palugama (Palukamam)
Sirirpalugama (Thirupalugamam) Mirabilis jalapa Hendirikka – – pattiratci – Mischodon zeylanicus Thwaites Damana, Thammanna- – Thampanai Tree found in Sri Lanka and South India. The leaves of the tree are said to
control serpents, and hence the name `damana&#39; may arise from the sinhala meaning
`control or subjugate&#39;. The Tamil name may also have originated from it.
There is a Thammanna vaetiyao damana vaetiya en
the Puttalam area, linked with Kuveni -first consort of Vijaya – by folklore,
 and mentioned in 15th century Kokila
 Sandesha kaavya. The modification into the form "thammana" has made some writers to
mistake it with the word "Tammaennaa". A place name "Damana" is not uncommon, e.g., it is
found near Dambulla (on the B294 road), in the eastern province etc. There is even a variety of
coconut known as `damana pol&#39; (see Dasnayake et al, J.Natn.Sci.Foundation Sri Lanka 2009 37 (2):99-109).

<! –

Mitragyna parvifolia


niculam


Mitragyna parvifolia


nirkadambai
->

Mitragyna Tubulosa Haelamba, Halamba bhumikadamba ? nirkadambai

Haelambaweva(Salampaikulam )
Sunakaelambaweva (Sonakasalampaikkulam) Modeca palmata Passifloraceae.,adenia palmata,
Granadilla hondala, Adenia hondala
Hondala, Pothu-hondala Vidari Puli-vaaka?- Described in an 1813 French text. Recorded in Dassanayake and Fosberg,
1980.
This is a poisonous plant (large climber in torpical forests).
Juice of leaves and roots used externally for skin diseases.
Images and write up

Some varieties of Hondala are edible if boiled sufficiently
to get rid of volatile poisonous acids which are generated from the
Gulocsides contained in these tubers.
Ginger contains linamarase-like compounds
 capable of decomposing
 the glucoside (e.g., see: Kodagoda N, Marcus V, Ambalavaner S. Some
observations on the liberation of hydrogen cyanide
from manioc.
Proceedings of the Annual Sessions
of the Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement
of Science 1973; 1: 38.). Hence it is best to avoid Ginger
avec Manioc, Gahala, Habarala, Hondala and other tubers which
contain poisonous-acid-glucosides-type compounds. Mollugo cerviana Pathpadagam – parpaatakam –

<! –

Mollugo lotioides


ciru ceruppati


Mollugo lotioides


ciruceruppati


Mollugo pentaphylla


turapoondu
–->

Mollugo spergula Theerapala, තීරපලා Dheera… Tirayaanti Hirikaenna (Thiraykkeani) Momordica charantia (bitter gourd, Karela)
images and write up

The gourd is eaten green, cooked in curry, or thinly sliced in a salad, or thinly sliced and slightly fried in oil with onions etc. Although it can also be eaten when it has started to ripen and turn yellowish, it becomes more bitter as it ripens. When the fruit ripens and turns orange and mushy, it is too bitter to eat.

Karawila, Karavila, Karavalli
Images and description

Momordica charantia L, belonging to Cucurbitaceae family that has been used in the traditional health care world over; claims have been made as an anti-cancer agent and for the treatment of diabetes.
In traditional herbal-medical use (diabetes, cholesterol lowering etc)
 powdered, dried fruit has been dosed in a range of 3-15 g/day. The fresh juice has been used at 50-100 mL/day, and a tea (kashaaya) of the fruit (about 3/4 cup per day
containing less than 10g of the fruit). But clearly, this type of dosage specification is very inexact.

karavella (Karav īra ?), Karavellakah;

medicinal properties:
Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed, Soundrrajan et al, 2012

"The ethnobotanical use of this plant is well documented. M. charantia has been reported to possess a number of diverse medicinal properties such as antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antifertility and abortifacient activity. Antigrowth properties of fractionated M. charantia whole plant extracts were first reported by West et al.). Subsequently, a number of growth inhibitors have been isolated from M. charantia seeds and its antiproliferative activity has been demonstrated in a variety of tumor cell lines. M. charantia fruit extract and its components have also been shown to be cytotoxic to leukemic lymphocytes and induce anti-tumor activity in vivo".

itaka-valli, pAgakkai, pakal, paval

In Tamil Nadu, it is used in thoran/thuvaran (mixed with grated coconut) dishes, theeyal (cooked with roasted coconut) and pachadi (a medicinal food for diabetics). Curry, deep fried with peanuts or other ground nuts, and Pachi Pulusu, a soup with fried onions and other spices. A special preparation in Brahmins cuisine called pagarkai pitla a kind of sour koottu is very popular. Kattu pagarkkai is a karawila stuffed with onions, cooked lentil and grated coconut mix, tied with thread and fried in oil. In Konkan-Maharashtra, salted chopped bitter gourd is squeezed, removing its bitter juice to some extent.After frying this with different spices, less bitter and crispy preparation is served with grated coconut. The same method is used in Sri Lanka.

See also under Niyangala (Glory Lilly).
c.f., Pali Text society Dictionary, p.179, reg.
wreath of karavīra flowers on a
criminal ready for execution:

Bitter melon can cause allergic reactions in some people.
It is traditionally avoided by pregnant women as it can cause miscarriages, or for treating children, based on historical use. Bitter melon seeds contain momorcharin, shown to have antifertility effects in female mice and spermatogenesis inhibition in dogs, but not conclusively in humans.

Momordica cylindrica (black ribbed gourd) Kalu wetakolu, Kalu vaetakolu – –

Type of &#39;vaetakolu&#39;, with medicinal value.
– Momordica dioica (spine gourd) Thumba Karivila bankreal ?- palupalagakalungai,palupakarkoti

Images and write up
Medicinal applications. presence of anti-oxidants etc.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume 115, Issue 1, 4 January 2008, Pages 61-66

– Monochoriahastata (arrowleaf Sida, false pickerel weed, Beal plant) Moodu awara Arusakara tankacci India and Sri lanka. Used in medicinal preparations. See Neelayadi Tailaya.
Sri Lanka wetlands

<! –

Monochoria vaginalis


nilakkoti
->

Morinda citrifolia Ahu achchhuka manjanatti, nuna

Ahuvila (Nunavil) Morinda coreia Goda Ahu – nuna –

->

Moringa oleifera (Drumstick Tree, horseradish tree ) Murunga sigru- sobhanjana murunkai, murungai The word "murunga" and the hindi "munga" may have a common etymological origin.
A small legumenose tree, 3-8 metres tall, fast growing
and hardy, with a leafy canopy of attractive tripinnate
ferny foliage, appealing wherever it is planted. Small,
waxy, creamy-white flowers resembling miniature orchids,
 form in clusters on
terminal stems, followed by 20-30cm long round pods. Pods similar to
drumsticks, as in its common name. The shell of the
pod has 3 sections with a row of wing-edged, round,
seeds.
The names "Gandhaka", and Grajana are given by Clough, p153, p174
19th century Sinhala dictionary.
A review of medical, nutritional
and prophylactic properties, Trees for Life Journal:

ou
 In the trees-for-life journal itself

It has been claimed that
(see article by
Tilak Fernando
):
"the crushed seeds of Moringa is capable of attracting and sticking
fast to bacteria and other viruses allowing them to be skimmed off
or get trapped in filter beds.
In developed countries water authorities use chemicals such as
Aluminium Sulphate to solidify impure particles, which are then
removed at treatment Works. In view of the scarcity of such
chemicals, the latest discovery of Moringa tree, which is also
known as the " Drumstick Tree", is a path breaking innovation to
purify water in developing countries, at a cost of only a fraction
of the conventional chemical treatment available today."
Unfortunately, contrary to the above claim,
au2(SO4)3, contained in
Alum, can be made from Bauxite or High-alumina clays, and
 is not at all scarce, and it is ~$100 per metric ton,
and is currently much cheaper for mass-scale
 applications (e.g., for municiple water)
 than using Murunga seeds which are not available on a
mass scale; the Al-salt can be
recovered and reused. The spent-murunga seeds cannot be recoved, but
holds much valuable water. However, this suggestion can be used in a
 decentralized manner, by a farming family which grows Murunga.
The use of Murunga as an anti-malarial has also been proposed.
 See also Kathuru-murunga
and Moodu-murunga

<! –

Moringa pterygosperma


murunkai


Moringa pterygosperma


murungai


Morus alba


kampalicceti1


Morus alba


pattuppuccimaram


Mucuna monosperma


thelu-kodi


Mucuna monosperma


periyattalargai

->

Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna prurita (velvet bean or cowitch)

Family: Fabaceae
The English name is probabaly a corruption iof the Hindi Kiwanch Wanduru Me, Vanduru Mee- Atmagupta-, Kapikacchu punaikkali – Mucuna gigantia (Woody liana) Kana-Pus-Waela, Pus-wela Kana pus vaela – punaikkali A lartge Pus waela, ie.e, a type of woody liana.
Regarde aussi Entada pursaetha . Mugonia mystax Bu – Gemiya, BooGaemiya – – –

<! –

Mukia scabrella


musumusukkai


Mukia scabrella


mucumucukkai


Mundulea sericea


venpuracamaram


Mundulea sericea


vellai 2

->

Muehlenbergia viridissima Garudaraja – – – Munronia pinnata, Ophelia Chirata (Bitters), Bin Kohomba, Bim Kohomba – – -"Bim kohomba" means &#39;&#39;Kohomba which grows at ground level".
A very small hardy shrub with unbranched stems 5 cm long.

There is also a “heen bin kohomba", i.e., a "thin" varaiety,
Andrographis paniculata
Heen Bim Kohomba Mununtingia calabura (Jamaican Cherry tree) Jaam gaha – – It has small sweet sticky fruits, juicy and full of tiny seeds, and small
white flowers.
They are a favourite with birds and bats and kids, who disperse the seeds.
 The leaves are covered with tiny sticky hairs. The tree grows fast,
 (up to 7-12m) and
 even in arid areas. May be useful for reforestation and for dendro-energy
  projects.
Wikipedia
<! – Heen BIm Kohomba
–!>


Murraya exotica, Murraya paniculata (mock orange, Chinese box)
Aetteriya,Etteriya

cimaikkonci, konci
Ornamental plant; evergreen foliage, with pinnate leaves. These generally have
3 to 9 leaflets. Leaves are small and the foliage is fairly dense, and this
plant is often grown as a bonsai tree

<! –

Murraya exotica


konci

->
Murraya koenigii Spreng.(curry leaves)

Images and write up

Its use in the diet has recently been claimed to lower cholesterol levels
 and type II diabetes (based on glucose levels in the blood), as demonstrated experimentally
  on mice.
Am. J. Chin. Med. vol 34, p279 (2006)
Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) reduces blood cholesterol and glucose
levels in ob/ob mice.

Xie JT, et al.
Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, Pritzker School of Medicine,
University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA. write:

Mice received daily injections of 80 mg/kg curry leaf extract
for 10 days. The extract decreased blood cholesterol
level from 277.6 +/- 16.6 mg/d (day 0) to 182.0 +/- 15.3 mg/d (day 10, p less than 0.01
compared with the change in vehicle group). The extract also significantly
decreased blood glucose level from 387.0 +/- 15.6 mg/dl (day 0) to 214.0 +/-
26.6 mg/dl (day 10, p less than 0.01). In addition, body weight was reduced after
extract treatment. Our data suggest that curry leaf may be proven to be of
clinical importance in improving the management of high cholesterol level and
type 2 diabetes.

Karapincha, Kara pincha
කරපින්චා
"Kara" part of the name may have come from the Sanskrit "Karasharka" or "Karapathra".
"Kara", from the Sansrit, "to do", "to make", "to prepare", etc.,
 gets carried into fr.cuire, "cocera" in Latin, Eng. cook,
and even Dravidian languages like Tamil (kari) and Malayalam.
The origin of the usage "pincha" is unclear (Bengalai is karipaththa, clearly
related to the Sanskrit "Karapathra". Perhaps the name
arose from "Karapuncha", i.e., the smaller-leaf variety, as opposed
to a larger-leaf variety, is our surmise.

Several other plants which carry the "karapincha related" names,
or kari-veppilai name are
listed in this website:
Clausena dentata (dehi karapincha)
Micromelum ceylanicum (val-karapincha)
but are not necessarily connected with Murraya koenigii
The plant Helichrysum italicum , (daisy family), found in the Mediterranean region is
also called a "curry plant" because of its astringent leaves. However, it is not related
to Karapincha.

surabhinimba, kalasaka,karasharka, Karapathra, mahanimba, girinimba (i.e., mountain-neem)- Karuveppilai, kariveppilai (kari-veppu-ilai i.e.,karu= Curry,
veppu=neem, ilai=leaf, கறி
வேப்பிலை), karivempu.
The word "curry&#39;, used as Kari as well as Karu in the Tamil name, may
 have come from the Sanskrit "Kara-sharka", and "kara-pathra".
The Malayalam name is "Kariveppila". The plant is a useful condiment and it is also ornamental.
 Leaves are used to flavour south asian dishes.It is used with coconut
 milk and spices in Sri lankan cooking.

In Sri lanka it is also consumed as a Kaenda, i.e., a broth
 taken at breakfast, and claimed to control blood cholesterol, diabetes etc.
Finely chopped leaves are also incorporated into a Maellum, i.e., a
mildly cooked salad,
with other leaves like Mukunuvaenna, Gotukola etc.

The shiny-black fruits are
 nutritious.
An alkaloid, murrayacinine, and essential oils are found in karapincha.
beta-caryophyllene and related essential oils are also found.
(Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 17, 144, 2002; Phytochemistry, 21, 1653, 1982)

The leaves, the bark and the roots are used
as a tonic and a digestive aid.
 They are also used externally to cure eruptions
 and insect bites
 The green leaves and its tea are used in
dysentery, and to stop vomiting.

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Murraya koenigii


kariveppilai


Murraya paniculata


cimaikkonci 1


Murraya paniculata


arruppancu
->

Musa paradisiaca Kesel, ramba kadali,- rambha tatam – Musa sapeintum Modan Kesel – – –

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Musa paradisiaca


vazhai
->
Mussaenda frondosa Mussanda nagvalli- velli ilai –

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Mussaenda frondosa


vellallay
–->

Mutingia calabura Jam, Jaaem Gaha – – – Myristica dactyloides Malaboda jatiphala- pattapanku – Myristica horsfieldia Puvangu, Puwangu – – see entry under Aglaia roxburghiana- Myristica fragrans Sadikka, Saadikka – jathikai –

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Myristica malabarica


kattu-c-catikkay


Myristica malabarica


pattiri

->

Myrtus canescens (Ceylon Gooseberry) Sitha Pera, seetha Pe~ra,
සීත පේර – – –

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes Pandanus amaryllifolius Rampa, Rampe – – –

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Pandanus fascicularis


tazhai


Pandanus fascicularis


thazhai


Pandanus odoratissimus


talai


Pandanus odoratissimus


mutakkan

->

Palaquium grande Kiripedda, Kiripaedda – – – Palaquium rubiginosum Tawenna, Tavaenna – – – Palaquium petriolare Kirihembiliya, Kirihaembiliya – – – Panicum crus-galli Vael muruk, Walmuruk – – type of "panic grass" Paritimn tilliaceum Belli-patta – – – Parkia timoriana, Parkia Roxburghii (tree bean) Saputa Maara, Toku-gedi gaha ?
Not native to Sri Lanka, but sometimes found
in the up-country, and in the Peradeniya Gdns.
 No established sinhala name, but name derived from
Hindi/Sanskrit may have been used or confused with Maara trees. Sapota Shivalaingada Maara (dravidian languages) ? Large tree found in Assam etc.
 The large beans (pods) are edible.
Bark extract used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Bark and leaves are used
in lotion applied to skin sores. Oil has insecticidal properties.
Parkia
Timoriana Image
Parthenium Hystrophorous ( Parthenium weed, carrot Grass)
Family: Asteraceae
Wild Quinine (Parthenium integrifolium) is closely related.
Image and write up Paathenium
This is an invasive species common in the North-East dry zone, Embilipitiya etc.,
 and believed to have come with
imported grains, or possibly with the arrival of the Indian peace keeping force (KPF) in 1988. Gajar Gaas (hindi name) –

It colonizes in grassy land and reduces the production of pasture.
It is a major health hazard to humans, as its pollen is allergenic, and causes dermatitis.
It is expensive to irradicate.
Irradicating the weed Paspalum scrobiculatum (Kodo millet)
a bitter-sweet, astringent grain. It grows on a grass-like plant
which may grow to 90 cm. Amu Sal
The grain is mentioned in the Mayamatha a medieval
 Sinhalese astrological work (vide. French translation by Jinadasa Leelaratne.) Kodravah, varuka vapitam, varagu, varuka Seeds have
 medicinal (diuretic, tonic, used for type-II diabetes in India)
and possible insect-control properties.
Experiments have yielded several
known fatty acids, sterols, unusual alkane-like hydrocarbons
ben conosciuto per
their insect pheromone activity along with
 the antitumour glyceride, alpha-palmitin.

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Paspalum scrobiculatum


varaku
->

Passiflora edulis Vael Dodang mukkopeera ? ciru punai-k-kali- –

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Passiflora foetida


ciru punai-k-kali
->

Pavetta indica Pavatta papata- pavattai, karanai

Pavattaweva (Pavatkulam, Pavattaikulam) Pavonia odorata (Fragrant swamp mallow) Pusha baebila, mal-baebila, Pusha bebila Udichya, Varinamaka peramutti, avibattam, Image and write up
The roots contain valeric acid, its aldedhyde, terpenes and azulenes. Pavonia zeylanica Kurundthati ? Bala cirramuttii,chitta mutti –

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Pedalium murex


peru-nerunji

->

Pedalium murex Aeta Nerenchi
ඇට නෙරෙන්චි
– perunerunji Peltophorum pterocarpum, Peltophorum ferrugineum (Copperpod, Golden Flamboyant, Yellow Flamboyant, Yellow Flame Tree) Maara, Kaha-maara – Nilalvakai, Kona Maram- The tree has been urbanized during British times, and used effectively as a shade tree
along Bulelrs Road and similar roads in Colombo. It is a dry-zone tree.
Peltophorum means shield bearer and this relates to the fruits of this tree which are small pods resembling shields. The tree which is indigenous to Sri Lanka.
Images Penicillaria involucratum Pothuhaera – pottukkampu

Pothuvila (Pottuvil) Penicillaria involucratum Pothuhaera – pottukkampu

Pothuvila (Pottuvil) Pennisetum olystachyon Pogon herbe – – Pericopsis mooniana Nedun, Naedun – – Nadunkurana (Nedunkerney)
Nadun weva (Nedunkulam)
Nadunkadola (Nedunkandal)

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Pergularia daemia


velipparutti


Pergularia daemia


uttamani

->

Perotis indica
(Indian comet grass)
Images and write up> kudira-thana ? – thopparai pullu, narival, kudiraival pullu See
Bor, N. L. 1960. Grass. Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan i–xviii, 1–767. Pergamon Press, Oxford. Je
 Book on grasses Petroselinum hortense. Petroselinum crispum, Apium petroselinum L.

(Parsley) Umbelliferae family, which also includes celery, carrots, dill, cilantro, caraway, cumin.

Images and writeup

Italian parsely is les curly
The parsley leaf looks like a very fine version of Coriander leaves, but it
is not coriander or cilantro.

Rata Asamodagam (?)

Not native to Sri lanka; plant originated in
the medeterrranean, and it is now widely cultivated as a
valuable herb.
Persillade is a mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley used in French cuisine
while &#39;Thibuli&#39; is middle-eastern.

– – In Sri lankan cooking,
Chopped parsely leaves can be made into a &#39;Sambol&#39; similar to &#39;Gotukola sambol&#39;.
Many many health benefits are claimed for Parsley in popular folk medicine, e.g.,
as an anti-oxidant, an anti-inflmmatory etc. Persea americana Alipera – – – Persicaria wallichii, Poligonum Wallichii (knot weed) Aembul Gaeta, Ambul Gata,ඇම්බුල් ගැට Images and write up – Invasive weed found in the Nuwar Eliya region.

Lalith Gunasekera on "Himalayan plant invading Nuwara Eliya, 2011

….this plant could be a big disaster in cooler climatic regions in sri Lanka specially in Nuwara Eliya district…. etc. Phaseolus aureus Robx (green gram) Mung haritha mudga Moong see current name: Vigna radiata Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper,, previously, Phaseolus mungo (black gram) ulundu, Undu Mudga uluntu, payaru US Dept. of agriculture now definitely classifies it as a Vigna Savi, i.e., cow pea Genus, in the family Fabaceae, i.e., Pea family. da qui il nome Vigna mungo è il
presently accepted name. "Ulundu vade" is one of the most well known preparations
using Ulundu or Undu flour. It is less extensively used in Sinhala cooking.

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Phaseolus radiatus


puparippayaru


Phaseolus radiatus


uluntu

->

Phlomis Ceylanica kuramba ? – Dron2a-pushpi, kula-pAlaka ? type of orange Phoberos macrophyllus Katu Kurundu – – – Phoenicanthus coriacea (Thw.) H. Huber Kelu – – Threatened species Phoenix dactylifera (Dates, date palm)
Family: Arecaceae
The name is of Greek origin (daktulos, c.f., finger), and
dates have an ancient history going back to Sumarian times. Rata Indi, රට ඉංදි
There is also a Sri Lankan local variety (Indi) which has
very small fruits, similar to that of Phoenix loureirii
ou Phoenix sylvestris, Phoenix_pusilla
with not much food value, but used in landscaping. – – Pericham pazham, pericham balam,
nota che pazham, balam, e palam are transliterations of &#39;palam&#39;, fruit..,
a word of Prakrit/Sanskrit origin (c.f., Phala in Sanskrit). Dr. Pethiyagoda has this to say about attmpts to cultivate Dates in Sr Lanka:

Govt to dabble with Dates, Island Newspaper, March 2012

It is not disclosed as to who is "studying" the prospect. The chances of commercially breeding Polar Bears or Penguins is only marginally more hopeless. I wish the Government would turn its attention to "dabbling" in issues that are much more urgent and practical.
Dr U. Pethiyagoda,

Former FAO Expert in Date Palm Breeding, Phoenix pusilla (Ceylon Date palm) Indi-gaha, ඉංදි ගහ
The name has most likely come form
"indo", meaning coming from India. However, the Malayalm, Telegu and Tamil
names also contain the intu, ita ending in the names. parusakah- cittintu, icham,- This is a fruit plant endemic to Sri lanka. Phoenix sylvestris (wild date, Indian date palm) Wal Indi, val Indi, වල්ඉංදි – –

Found in India, and sometimes in SL.
The word `Phoenix`in the Latin name came from Greek and means "purple".
 while `Sylvestris` means "wild". The leaves may be used for making mats, bags
 etc. The tree is tapped to make a toddy or palm wine.
 Wild Date

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Phyla nodiflora


potutalai


Phyla nodiflora


poduthalai
->

Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus airy-shawii (Niruri ) Pitawakka, Pitavakka Thaamalaki-,Drdhapadia – Plant is used in Sinhala medicine for daibetes.

See Ratnasooriya et al


Image Phyllanthus emblica, Emblica officinalis ( Indian gooseberry, myrobalan ) Nelli Dhatri Nelli, toppi Place-names: Nelliyadda (Nelliyaddi)
It part of the "Aralu, Bulu, Nelli
combination of Thripala popular in Sri Lanka, and in
S. Asia. The fruit is
extremely rich in Vitamin C. There are tanning agents in the juice and the
bark. It is a major
constituent of other Ayurvedic Tonics, "rasaayanams", and in Sinhala Kashaaya
 etc. It is the base of Chyawanprash. Charak Samhita, the ancient Ayurvedic treatise written by
 Charak in the 4th century BC, contains the first historically documented formula for Chyawanprash.
This "jam" is a mix of 49 ayurvedic herbs with "nelli"(Indian gooseberry) or Emblica officinalis as the base. The other ingredients in this traditional recipe include ashwaganda, pippali, cardamom, nutmeg and cinnamon in a base of clarified butter and honey. This &#39;elixir&#39; is claimed to be good for all, irrespective of age and gender, and said to create a harmonious synergy in the body leading to better metabolism. (Please note that in this website we report the information available in the
literature, but make no claims to their scientific validity. Indian hebalists sell Cyawanprash
 for about $30 per lb in white plastic bottles-price in the year 2010. It is in their interests to
boost these claims.).

nelli is claimed to be useful in hemorrhoids,
 gastritis and colitis, and the regulation of blood sugar.
 The crushed dried fruit is available in tablet form and sold
  as alternative medicine in the west.
Image and
Scrivilo

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Phyllanthus fraternus


kizha-nelli


Phyllanthus maderaspatensis


melanelli


Phyllanthus reticulatus


nirppul


Phyllanthus reticulatus


karunelli
->

Phyllanthus urinaria Pitawakka bahupatra- cirukilanelli –

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Phyllanthus urinaria


cenkilanelli


Physalis minima


puritayacceti


Physalis minima


puritayam


Physalis peruviana


kutavayam


Physalis peruviana


periyatakkali

->

Picrorrhiza Kurroa

Image of dried roots Katukarosana Katuka – Well known herb used in Sri Lankan local medicine, in Kashayaas,
to treat disorders of the liver and upper respiratory tract,
 reduce fevers, and to treat dyspepsia, chronic diarrhea.
 The dried product (roots) is mostly imported from India, but may be
 grown in the rocky, cooler high-elevation
parts of Sri lanka. vous
 claimed to reduce cholesterol, anti-asthmatic, has antioxidents,
  and is hepato-protective.
 Its main ingredient is Kutkin, made up of various glycosides.
 It also contains curcubitins which are claimed to have

anti-tumour effects.

Regarde aussi
Updates
Pimpinella anisum (Anis)
Description and Images (Mahaduru ?), paeniduru, Sathapuspa Shatapushpa- Makampu- It is a carminative, antispasmodic, expectorant, a pancreatic stimulant.
As food, the anise is used for cooking sweet and spicy dishes.

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Piper attenuatum


irenukai


Piper attenuatum


renukam
->

Piper betel Bulath nagavalli, tambula verrilai, vettilai, Vettila (Mal), Tamalapaku (Tel),
 veeleya/vilya (K),Vidyache pan (Marathi)

What is the etymology of "Bulath"? It does not seem to be related
to other languages including Sanskrit "Nagavalli". However, tamBULA
may have been abbreviated and extended to "Bulath" from the usage
for a sheaf of betels, as discussed below. The "Bula-atha" perhaps
became, "bulath atha", i.e., the sheaf of leaves given to the host
on traditional visitations in olden times. The etymology of the
Sanskirt word nagavalli is also obscure. "Valli" may have the
meaning "vine", or creeper, while the name "Naga" here is thought
to be associated with the "cobra head" shape of the veins on the
leaf. Some consumers of betel, mainly used as a masticatory mixed
with sliced arica-nut ("puvak" in Sinhala), distinguish between the
green leaved betel more common in the south, with a somewhat more
golden ("damba") variety found in the north. Also people who are
aware of the older belief systems and consuming betel usually nip
the tapering apex of the leaf in a gesture equivalent to
"decapitating the cobra". For a picture of the betel leaf, with the
"cobra-hood" or "naga-hood imprinted" leaf, see
Betel leaf   .
Dr.Herman Vinze has also suggested to us that "The herb Betel is a
climber that twines in a serpentine fashion round a prop or a tree
in the vicinity, hence the epithet, NAGAVALLI". Many pepper vines
are creepers. Other types of peper, e.g., Piper longum (Thipplili
in Sinhala) are also climbers but they do not have leaves with
"naga-hood" shaped veins. It should also be noted that a tribe of
people known as the "Nagas" are mentioned in the Mahabharata,
Mahavamsa and other ancient texts, and lived in ancient south-east
Asia. They may have been consumers of this leaf.

The western form "Betel" may have arisen from the Malayalam "Verilla",
where the sound "v" transforms to "b" and "r" to "t", "betila" and
"betel" via Portuguese, circa 16th century. The Malayalam word "Verilla"
may be a compounding of "veru ila".
Toponymy

Piper chaba (Thai pepper) siviya
Thai lomg peper, iamges etc – – T Piper longum Thippili, Tippili, pippali, Magadhi – Pippili, tippili, Pipallu (Tel), Tippali (Mal), Hipli (K) There is also a variety known as "Gaja Thippili" or "Gajakana". Thipplili is of
great importance in south Asian medicine, and occurs in many
herbal preparations. See previous entry, under "Piper betel". Piper nigrum Gammiris maricam- milaku, milagu Miriswatte, Mirisa-vaetiya, Mirrissa are known place names. Mirisa Vaetiya is
an important Anuradhapura Shrine mentioned in the mahavamsa.

Pisionia grandis, Ceodes umbraculifera (sensu GW),
 (grand devil&#39;s-claws)

Bougainvillea family
Tree with pale bark to 20m.
The LEAVES: opposite sometimes alternate, simple, wide-oval, to 30x15cm, topside without hairs; stalk short to 3cm.
FLOWERS: unisexual on same tree or different, in terminal clusters;
MALE tube green, slightly flaring; petals (=lobes) small, spreading, cream; stamens 5-6 slightly protruding;
FEMALE tube green ovoid,
 5 rows of black glands; lobes tapering, not spreading; stigma protruding.
FRUIT (=anthocarp) cylindrical, ripening brown with 5 spiny ribs, sticky, to 2cm long. (courtesy: Cook-Island biodiversity site)

Chemical examination of Pisonia grandis (Leehai Kottai, Keerai)afforded actacosanol, B-sitossterol, a-spinosterol, B-sitosterol glucoside, dulcitol and quercetin.

වාත භංග
Vaathabhanga, Vathabhanga, Wathabanga, ketta-kola
Image and Sinhala write up – Lechai-Kottai-Keerai- Leaves are eaten as a cooked salad (maellung), often mixed
with pani-thora leaves, mukunuvaenna leaves etc. It is claimed to reduce
arthritis, constipation, kidney function etc.

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Pistia stratiotes


kodi-tamarai


Pistia stratiotes


akayat-tamarai


Pithecellobium dulce


vetiyuppukkatti


Pittosporum tetraspermum


kaccappatta
->

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T-

DEc 1st 2012
->

Plectranthus Elongata Wal kapparawalliya – – – Plectranthus zeylanicus, Coleus zeylanicus (Benth
Coleus vettiveroides (K. C. Jacob), Iriveriya, ඉරිවේරිය
Image Hireeberum
Also, see under Coleus Vettiyar Native to Sri lanka hills;
 has terpenes: derivatives of geaniol, nerol, hexane, octane Plantago ovata, P. arenaria (Psyllium, Ripple grass, spaghula) aspagolla Ashwagol,Ishadgola,Ashwakarnabeeja, Sheetabeeja Iskolvirai, Iskol, Isphagol, Ishappukolvirai, Ishappukol Not native to Sri lanka. It needs cool dry weather.
Seeds are collected and the
Psyillum husk, and muscilage are used in "colon cleanser" and obeisity medications. Pleomele reflexa Synonym Dracaena sanderiana Song of sri lanka.
Image piliomalee, පිලියෝමලී
write up in Sinhalese – – This is an ornamental plant introduced to Sri Lanka. There are several variants
like: song of India, song of Sri Lanka, etc. There are many Sri Lankan exporters
 of this ornamental
plant. Pleurostylia Panakka – – –

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Plumbago indica


akkini


Plumbago indica


senkoduveri


Plumbago rosea


kodimuli


Plumbago rosea


kotimuli

->
Plumbago zeylanica (Ceylon leadwort) Ela Nitul, Rat Nitul is Plumbago Indica Chitraka kodiveli, venkotiveli, chitramoolam, Chittira Plant is used in sinhala native treatment in combination
 with other preparations, especially for
fever. There are many prescriptions for fever containing it
and it is prescribed in
flatulence, dyspepsia, dysentery an other diseases.
The root is used medicinally for bowel disorders;
 it is used fors anti-fertility puposes.
images and write up

Plumeria acuminata (Temple flower, Frangipani, Champac), Plumeria rubra, Plumeria Pudica Araliya – arali, perungalli, kanagile, kuppiyalani, The residence of the Prime minster of Sri Lanka is known as
"Temple Trees". The flower is
 offered in buddhist temples, votive offerings to gods etc..
 Muslims plant the tree in burial grounds.
It is related to the Oleander plant
Kaneru but less poisonous.
The plant material is used in alternative medicine as a purgative,
remedy for diarrhoea and cure for itch. The milky
sap is employed for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatism.

Its fragrance is used in commercial perfumes.

Images

Plumeria Pudica is the type of "Araliya", with white or yellowish flowers.
This profuse bloomer has unusual spoon-shaped leaves, and its flowers are white with a yellow center.
Its common names are: Bridal bouquet, White frangipani

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Plumeria rubra


segappu arali

->

Pogostemon heyneanus, Gam Kollan-kola – kannokkikyacceti, katir paccai Pogostemon Patchouli is a variety of this plant, from which
Patchouli is produced. See Clough&#39;s dictionary 1892, p149-

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Pogostemon patchouli


katir paccai


Polyalthia fragrans


nedunar
->

Polyalthia longifolia Owila, Ovila, asoka asoka ulkatah nettilinkam, assothi – Polyalthia persicaefolia (Hook. f. & Thoms.) Thw.
There is also a Polyalthia mooni Thw. Patul Kenda, Patul Kaenda, Pata ul Kaenda – – Threatened species

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Polycarpaea corymbosa


cataicciver


Polycarpaea corymbosa


nilaisedachi

->

Polygala arvensis (Milkwort) -sinhala name not known.
If available, please write to place.names@yahoo.com – veppilainankai, orupanankaicceti – Polygala chinensis (milkwort) sirinangi (sinhala name not confirmed}
believed to be a hypnotizing herb. – ciriyanankai – Polygala javana (milkwort) – sinhala name not known.
If available, please write to place.names@yahoo.com

believed to be a hypnotizing herb. – ciriyanankai –

->

Polygonum barbatum (knotgrass) Kibulvaenna, Kimbulwenna – niralari, kulattukkulkuratti

Image and write up

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Polygonum barbatum


kulattukkulkuratti1


Polygonum glabrum


atalari
->

Pometia Tomentosa Mora – Murali, Chem-poovam Morakotahena (Morakkottanchenai ) Pongamia Pinnata
Pongamia glabra.
famille Fabaceae (Indian beech)
A legume tree that grows to about 15–25 meters in height.
The tree grows wild on sandy and rocky soils, including limestone, and will grow in most soil types, even with its roots in salt water. Flowers after 3–4 years. Cropping of pods and single almond sized seeds may occur by 4–6 years. Small white, purple, and pink flower clusters blossom throughout the year, maturing into brown seed pods. Karanda

Toponyms
Karandeniya (SP), Karampethara (WP), Karandana, Karangoda (SabP)
Karambe, Karemewewa, Karambahedigala,Karambalana, Karambalanda, Karambapahala, Karambawatta (NWP and NCP)
Karambankulama,Karandapotana (NCP)
Krampan, Karampakam,Karanmpaikkuruchchi(Karamabakulissa), Karampaimadu (Karambamaduwa) (N & E)
Karandagolla, Karandamadiththa (CP)

Naktamaala kolliyam, pomka, punku The twigs are used as toobrushes in rural Sri Lanka.
The leaf-extract is believed to be protective of crops aganst catterpillers. The seed oil has been found to be useful in diesel generators and, along with Jatropha, it is being explored in hundreds of projects throughout the third world as feedoil for Bio-diesel, biofuel.
Images and description

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Pongamia glabra


punku


Pongamia pinnata


ponka


Pongamia pinnata


punku

->

Portulaca oleracea (Purslane) Genda kola- ගෙඳකොල – karikkirai, pulikkirai There are ~200 species of purslanes, where the common name for
the group is Portulaca. The species (amn annual), Portulaca
oleracea is found around the world and almost as a weed in Sri lanka.
 It grows even in poor-quality soils with little water and resists
disease. Its seeds have been found to survive for decades. P. oleracea
has high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, helpful in reducing heart disease
and important in the katabolisis of cell membranes, nervous sytem,
brain and eyes. "Genda" is sold as "Keerai" by Tamil-speakingvegetable
vendors in Colombo.

Image of a typical species (Portulaca oleracea)

Lawrence Newcomb&#39;s Flower guide (997) describes it as:
weed is from the Purslane Family (Portulacaceae) and also goes by the name
Pusley. It has rosettes of fleshy, paddle-shaped leaves, each with a small
(1/4 inch wide) yellow flower. It grows low to the ground in large circular
mats up to 1.2m across and it is succulent with short leaves less than an inch
long scattered along its brownish stems. The flowers only open for a few hours
in the morning sun and there are usually five petals but sometimes four or six.
Its seeds are ovate to triangular, reddish brown to black and shiny. Each plant
is capable of producing 240,000 seeds which are viable for up to 40 years. elle
is found in gardens and bare ground from June to October.

It would be very interesting to distill the seeds of this plant and
run a mass spec. or chromatograph of the product. I haven&#39;t seen any work in
that direction as yet.(CDW 2010).

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Portulaca oleracea


pulikkirai


Portulaca pilosa


koli mulaiyan


Portulaca pilosa


mukkulik-kirai


Portulaca quadrifida


passalaikkirai


Portulaca quadrifida


cirupacalai


Premna corymbosa


kulmunnai


Premna integrifolia


arani

->

Premna integrifolia Maa Midi – munnai, aranai Also, premna spinosa. Used as herbal medicine, it is an ingredient of
 Dashamool Arishtaya Premna serratifolia heen-midi Angnimantha- Erumai-mullai, perumunnai, munnai Mahisadoova (Erumaitivu)
Page 54 of C. Rasanayagam, Ancient Jaffna

Alternative identification and pictures Premna tomentosa Boo seru – podaganari, masathekku


Premna Vilosa Lee-kola palaa – –


Prosopis cineraria (Mesquite)
Botany and write up Vanni-andara. Katu andara, Kalapu andara, Lunu andara.
Same name, i.e, Andara, is used with Acacia catechu
Mesquite bushes in Sri Lanka Dry Zone

– vanni, parambi
Linked with the "vanni" caste in South India
Vanniyar as a caste are no longer registered amongst northern Sri Lankan Tamils but are believed to be assimilated as part of the local Vellalar castes. Many kings and chiefs with titles such as Vanni or Vannia had ruled in these areas termed as Vannimai during the Jaffna Kingdom days.

The Sinhalese/Pali/Sanskrit word for forest, namely Vanna and Vannia (or Wannia) as a forest-dweller, and vanniars as their chiefs is also well accepted in Sri Lanka (c.f.., the word Vanniyala-Aetto) Thorns are distributed sparsely, unlike in P. jiliflora
Vanni Tree (Prosopis) is a holy tree in the Hindu tradition.
 Pods are eaten as a vegetable in the human diet in some areas. In Rajasthan, green pods called sangri are boiled and dried. The flowers are valuable for honey production. The bark can be used in leather tanning and yields an edible gum. Bark and flowers are used medicinally. In times of famine, the powdered bark has been mixed with flour and made into cakes. However, in some ecologies Katu Andara has become invasive, and the IUCN has listed it as one of the trouble 100 invasive trees where as such blanket categorization is clearly invalid. –Prosopis juliflora (Mesquite) vanni-andara, Katu andara, Lunu Andara
Same name is used with Accacia catechu
This is said to have been introduced to Sri Lanka in the 19th century. But given its existence
and recognition even as a holy tree in ancient India, that claim is unlikely to be true. The tree
is believed to have existed in the Vanni
and Mannar regions for a long time.
www.researchintouse.com/nrk/RIUinfo/…/R7295_Prosopis_Sri_Lanka.pdf
Dr. Pethiyagoda on katu-Andara, 2011 wonders if the Forest Dept. wished to plant Prosopis Dulcis in the
Hambantota/Ambalanthota area and ended up with P. Juliflora. – cimaikkaruvel, velikattan This species has thorns in pairs at the nodes but thornless internodes. It may also be almost thoneless. Prosopis spicigera Lunu andara – takanam, vanni
Vanni Tree (Prosopis Spicigera) is a holy tree in the Hindu tradition. – Prunus ceylanica (Ceylon cherry)
Rosaceae Lovi, lovi (?), Katulovi, katu lovi
Images
see also Flacourtia indica, called Lovi or Uguraessa, a kind of plum.

Plums and prunes belong to the so-called `stone fruits&#39; as they have a
hard stone. The common plum in the west is the European plum (Prunus domestica).

We have not confirmed if
Prunus cerasus is Elawaluka.

Threatened plant katilai, Pallankachchi, Attanarei Helps reduce Gout symptoms;
said to contain melatonine which helps to induce sleep.
(In this regard,
 Tart cherries are recognized as a
valuable cure for insomnia.
Prunus avium L. is the Sweet Cherry, and Prunus cerasus L. the Sour, Pie, or Tart Cherry. &#39;Montmorency&#39; is by far the main sour cherry in the USA and Canada Pseudarthria viscida
Family: Fabaceae (bean family) Gas-Gonika
Image and write up Salaprni, Saliparni, prisniparni
In the northern India Saliparni is identified as desmodium gangeticum.
(`Salaparni&#39; name based on the similarity of its leaves to those of sala tree shorea robusta, pitani, Neermalli The Sinhala name `Gas-Gonika&#39; has been firmly identified with Pseudarthria viscida.
It is important in Ayurveda and Sinhala medicine, used in `kola-kaenda&#39; (herbal soup) for
reducing blood clotting, cholesterol, against diabetes etc., although so far
careful experimental data are lacking It is also claimed to be a cure for hemorrhoids.

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Pseudarthria viscida


pitani#
->

Psidium guajava Pera – sengoyya, koyya – – Pterocarpus marsupium Gammaalu, Gammalu asanah- vengai –

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Pterocarpus marsupium


kani


Pterocarpus santalinus


cencantanam
->

Pterocarpus santalinus Rathhandun, Rath Handun, Rath keeriya ? raktachandana- cencantam Then timber is highly valued.
The oil is also highly valued in the aroma industry and in
traditional medicine. "Sudu Handun" is Santalum album
Rath Handun is applied as a paste to swellings,
insect bites and dermatological conditions. It has other
extensive applications in Ayurveda, where "Raktha Chandana Choorna"
has been mentioned.
 Image and write up

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Pterospermum acerifolium


vennangu


Pterospermum acerifolium


turumotpalam
->

Pterospermum canescens Velang, Welan – – –

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Pterospermum diversifolium


mooli


Pterospermum diversifolium


vattapolavu
->

Punica granatum L. (Pomagranate)

Image, Flower of the Promagranate Delum, දෙලුම්
See:
Proceedings of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions,
 Sri Lanka
, Vol. 16, 24th November 2011
Comparison of Antioxidant Potential of Sri Lankan and Indian Pomegranate
(Punica granatum L.) Cultivars for a discussion of the phytochemistry,
by D. Bopitiya , L.J.P.A.P. Jayasooriya and T. Madhujith
(www.pdn.ac.lk/purse/Proceedings/2011/Food/f_1.pdf) dadima- lohitapuspaka matulai,matulam An ancient fruit mentioned even in the exode and in Ayurvedic medicine.
The fruit and seeds are claimed to be beneficial to cardiac ailments, and contain
anti-oxidants. It is used in salads, cordials and beberages.
The fruit is
exported from Sri lanka.

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Pupalia lappacea


napikai


Pupalia lappacea


adai-otti


Putranjiva roxburghii


irukolli, karupali
->

Putranjiva zelanica Pelen – karupali – Pyrrosia heterophylla L. Price
Image
This is a type of fern (family Polypodiaceae). Panam pethi
The sinhala name reflects the "coin shaped leaves" of this fern commonly
found on the trunks of coconut trees etc. – karupali –
Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane) Uk, Ukgas Sarkara karumbu, karumpu Sugarcane species in Sri
Lanka by Nande Dharmawardene

Ethanol fuel in Sri Lanka
see also N. Dharmawardene Sugar Tech, vol. 8 p 36-53 (2005)

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Saccharum officinarum


karumpu


Saccharum spontaneum


nanal


Saccharum spontaneum


naanal

->

Sacciopelsis interrupta Beru-pan tall reedy grass – – Salacia prinoides, Salacia Reticulata Kothala-himbutu – – Claimed to lower blood sugar levels, reduces rheumatoid arthritis,
 and used as a herbal tea. This plant can be used to treat allergies
   due to sensitivity to pollen, skin ailments and bronchial asthmas.
Herbal teas

Japanese companies are claimed to be selling products based
on this plant. However, caution must be excercised in judging these
reports. See
Claims reg. Fuji patents

The Siddhalepa group in
Sri Lanka also claims a patent for Kothala-Himbutu products.

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Salix tetrasperma


atrupalai


Salix tetrasperma


vanji
->

Salvadora persica (tooth-brush tree, Miswak) Maliththana, Mal-idhdhana, Pilu Pilu, gudaphala- opa, uka This tree is mentioned in the Mahabharatha (Book VIII: Karna Parva, Chapter 30, verse 24)
under the name Pilu,
 and its twigs are
recommended for use as a tootbrush, esp. in Arabic-Persian traditions.
Mild desinfectants are found in the juice of the crushed twigs. A closely related
species, Salvadora oleiodes is also said to be found in arid parts of
Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, the twigs of the "Karanda tree" are used for
toothbrushes, insted of the Miswak tree.
Wiki write up and image
The sanskrit name “Pllu" has also been used in Sanskrit (c.f., Cologne Sanskrit dictionary)
for palm trees (see our write up under cocos nucifera).

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Sansevieria roxburghiana


marul

->

Sansevieria zeylanica (Snake plant)
Most plants sold as Sansevieria zeylanica nous sommes S. trifasciata. True Sansevieria zeylanica has little appeal as an ornamental plant.
A commercial outlet and images Niyanda, නියඳ aussi Maruva – murvam This (or S. trifasciata )is also a common ornamental house plant.
See Sansevieria Production Guide
The roots are used in local medicine. Santalum album Sudu Handun chandana- cantanam –

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Santalum album


chandanam
->

Sapindus emarginatus Penela phenila- puvamkottai –

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Sapindus emarginatus


pucha

->

Saraca asoca Asoka, Diya ratambala Ashoka asoka,asoka pattai – Saraca Indica Diya Ratmal – asoka pattai – Sarcocephalus cordatus (Leichhardt tree) Bakini, Bakmi, Bakmee, (Piya ?) – – Other names may be: Cephalanthus orientalis, Nauclea orientalis
Images and write up

see Bakini under Nauclea orientalis

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Sarcostemma secamone


kalappalai


Sarcostemma secamone


kalappalai

->

Sauropus Androgynus (Sweet Leaf Bush, Star
Gooseberry, called "katuk" in Singapore)
Spurge family, Euphorbiaceae i.e., the family of
castor, poinsettia, manioc etc.
Image
Images and write up;
Images Japan batu,
however, this is not in the Solanaceae family typical of wambatu or Thibbatu. – – People in Sri lanka may consume the leaves if they have the plant
 in their garden. The leaves have a pleasent
nutty-leafy taste. Both flowers and fruits produced by the plant can be eaten.
Fruits are liked by the "Konda-kurulla" birds (a type of cardinal).
 However, it is not known in the Sri lankan markets. There are adverse
 effects (due to presence of oxalates, and hence it
should be consumed only in moderation). I thank RK for information reg. this plant (aug-2011). Sarcostemma secamone – – kalappalai,kalappai – Scaevolas Koenigii, S. Takkada (rice-paper plant) Thakkada – – The pitch of this plant was used in the old days (before plastics became popular) for
as a soft, light carving and moulding material and for making paper.

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Schefflera venulosa


modakama
->

Schleichera oleosa, Schleichera trijuga (Lac tree, Ceylon Oak, Macassar-oil tree) Koon, (Ko~n) කෝන් Mukulakah, Rakthamrah Puvatti-puvam, Pumarata, modakapulasu (Telegu) Large tree, 15-32 m high dense spreading crown, leaves alternate, 2-4 pairs, elliptic
The bark and oil are used. The bark is astringent, anti-pyretic, inflammation etc.
The oil is bitter-sweet: stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative. Used for burns, acne, dermotherapy.

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Scilla hyacinthina


narivengayam


Scilla hyacinthina


kattu velvenkayam


Scleria lithosperma


kaden pullu


Scleria lithosperma


katinappul

->

Scleria oryzoides Pothu-pan, Pothukola, Pothuhara – Poththu ? – Scleria tesselata Wel karawu, Vel karavu – – weed, waste locations


Image

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Scolopia crenata


charalu


Scutia indica


pulittotariver


Secamone emetica


tattava


Secamone emetica


nattuvariyal


Securinega leucopyrus


veppula


Securinega leucopyrus


irubulai


Securinega virosa


irubulai


Securinega virosa


pula


Semecarpus anacardium


cenkottai


Semecarpus anacardium


shenkottai


Semecarpus travancorica


nattuccenkottai

->

Semecarpus (semicarpus) gardneri, (marking nut tree) Badulla
Semicarpus Obvata, Semicarpus obovatum is Kalu-Baulla,
a threatened species listed in IUCN-red list.
See alsp p 114 of Clogh&#39;s dictionary. – – The city of Badulla, capital of the Uva province, location of Muthiyangana, is
a well-konwn toponymic.

Sesamum indicum (Sesame, gingilly) Thala Tila (तिल) ellu, ella

The sinhala name clearly comes from the Sanskrit which is also the source of
all north Indian names. The south indian languages (Kannada, Tamil, malayalam etc.) use
a form related to Ellu, as in Tamil. .
Etymology and Images
This grain is used to make "Thala thel", or Gingelly/Gingilly Oil.
This is a staple in the Jaffna (Jaapanaya) and other Tamil-Hindu areas of Sri lanka.
It is used for "oil baths" in the Tamil traditions, but the use of this oil
is very limited in Sinhalese-Buddhist culture. However, an account in the
Raajaratnaakaray show that "gingilly oil, cow ghee, civet fat
(urulae thel) and camphor were burnt for 12 years in
the temple by King Pandith Parakrama bahu. in the temple
.Wijayasundaraaramaya, in Beligala.
For medicinal uses and pharmocology, see
Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology, vol 2 (no 2), p15-19 (2008)

Sesame plant holds its importance from the ancient times. Sesamum indicum is commonly
called sesame, Family: Pedaliaceae mainly cultivated for its seeds. Beside seeds the
other parts of plant are also useful like flowers (, alopecia, and constipation),
roots (antifungal activity) and leaves (infant cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, and for
urinary infections). Sesamin and sesamolin, two unique phytoconstituents isolated from
seeds, possess excellent cholesterol-lowering effect in humans and prevents high blood
pressure. They serve as a good source of copper, manganese and calcium which are effective
in reducing pain, in osteoporosis and in reduction of swelling in rheumatoid arthritis.
Antioxidant action is also observed with seeds. In Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine the
oil from seeds is used for massage and health treatments of the body. The present review
encompasses all the important aspects of sesame.
On the other hand, some negative indications for heart conditions have been noted. Sesamum indicum Tun-path thalaa – kattel – Sesamum Orientale Tunpath thalaa – – – Sesamum prostratum ? – kattel –

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Sesbania bispinosa


mutalai
–->

Sesbania grandiflora
(Scarlet wisteria tree, Swamp pea, West Indian pea.) Kathuru Murunga කතුරු
 මුරුංගා अगस्ति (agasti), Varnari, Munipriya, Drigapalaka – அகத்தி (akatthi)- The word "murunga" and the hindi "munga" may have a common etymological origin.
Click here for Sesbania Grandiflora  
Small soft-wood tropical tree, ~9 meters in height, with large pink – or white flowers.
The flowers are hermaphroditic pollinated by birds;
the leaves are 20-25 cm long with oblong leaflets.
Used as a fodder in south Asia, particularly for dry season feeding of cattle and goats.
Commonly grown on paddy bunds, and around gardens or cropping fields for its nitrogen contribution.
The sparse canopy of S. grandiflora casts relatively little shade, hence suitable close to
sun-loving crops and gardens. S. grandiflora grows fast and used as an annual green manure
crop. The wood is too light to be good firewood. The leaves, seed pods and flowers are
eaten as "maellung" (cooked salad) in Sri Lanka. Claims that it contains 25-30% crude protein have not
been confirmed.

Various parts of Sesbania grandiflora have been used in the Indian system
 of medicine, in particular, the leaves of S. grandiflora are used in Ayurveda
 for the treatment of epileptic fits. The triterpene containing fraction of S.
 grandiflora exhibits a wide spectrum of anticonvulsant profile and anxiolytic
 activity.
See Murunga

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Setaria italica


tenai


Setaria italica


tennai

->

Shorea robusta Sal agnivallabha, ashvakarna, ashvakarnika Kungkiliyam, Attam, Venkungilium, Chaalamban Toponyms
SAALAPANA (Chalampan)
Salgasweva (Chalampaikkulam)
Saalakaenna (Chalampakerni)
Salaavatha (Chilaw)
Images and write up
This name is also confusingly used for the cannon-ball tree. In Sri Lanka that usage is more common,
while in India this is called Sal in several languages. The tree mentioned
in Buddhist texts,
growing in Kushinara in the Saala grove (c.f., The Buddha&#39;s Parinibbana) is
probabaly a Shorea robusta.
Salgaha in Sri Lanka is the Cannon-ball tree

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Shorea roxburghii


talura
->

  • Shorea hulanidda
  • S. dyeri
  • S. lissophylla
  • Shoria oblongifolia
  • S. palleescens
  • Shorea stipularis
  • Hulan Idda
  • Yakahulu Dun
  • Malmora
  • Dummala
  • Rathu Dun
  • Nawada, Navada, Hulan Idda
– – Threatened, IUCN red listed.
many of these trees produce useful resins, and oils.
`Dummala&#39; is well known.
see Dummala, traditional resin
There is a place-name called `Dummalasooriya&#39;.

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Sida acuta


pon mucuttai


Sida acuta


karuncaranai


Sida carpinifolia


vattatirippi


Sida cordifolia


nilatutti


Sida cordifolia


nila thuthi

->

Sida periplocifolia Vilvae~ra විල්වෑර – – –

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Sida rhombifolia


velaippacai

->

Sida rhombifolia (Arrowleaf sida, Indian hemp) kotikan baebila,
babila, Sithalulaka, Sulubalila
"bevila" (common Sinhala name for Sida varieties) naagabala, mahabala kurunthotti Sida rhombifolia is an Ayurvedic herb, known also as "Gajabalaa",or gajapalaa.
 It is a very small perennial plant. Leaves, stem, bark and roots are usable parts.-
According toDymock, Warden, Hooper: Pharmacographia Indica (vol. I, pp. 206-207) :
Sida carpinifolia, Sida cordifolia, Sida rhombifolia, Sida spinosa, Malvaceae.  
The plants belonging to this genus are known in Sanskrit by the general name Bala. Five kinds of Bala are
mentioned in by Sanskrit medical writers under the name of Pancha-bala, viz., Bala, Nāgabala, Mahabala, Atibala and
Rajabala. The Hindus regard the roots of the different species of Sida as cooling, astringent and tonic; they prescribe them
in nervous and urinary diseases, and in fever. The root bark is beaten up with milk and sugar, and aromatics and stimulants
are sometimes added. (For original prescriptions, see Dutt&#39;s "Hindu Materia Medica," p. 121.) In the Concan the leaves of S.
cordifolia (Chikana) with other cooling leaves are applied in ophthalmia; the root-juice is used to promote the healing of
wounds, and the juice of the whole plant pounded with a little water is given in 1/4 seer doses for gonorrhoea. The root of
S. carpinifolia (Tupkaria) is applied with sparrow&#39;s dung to burst boils. The Mohammedans consider Bala to be aphrodisiac.
Ainslie notices several species of Sida, and the uses to which they are applied by the Hindus. The author of the Bengal
Dispensatory, after a trial of the roots of Sida carpinifolia, was unable to satisfy himself as to its febrifuge action, but
it was found to promote perspiration, to increase the appetite, and to act as a useful bitter tonic. In Goa the Portuguese
value it as a diuretic, especially in rheumatic affections; they also use it as a demulcent in gonorrhoea. In Pudukota the
plant of S. humilis, Willd., is ground with onions and administered with for gonorrhoea. Its Tamil name is Pelambaci. S.
rhombifolia is called in Australia "Queensland Hemo," and in N.-S. Wales "Lucerne," as cows are very fond of it. C'est aussi
called "Jelly-leaf" on account of its mucilaginous nature. In the various species of Sida we have demulcent and emollient
properties combined with bitterness.

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Sida rhomboidea


siruthuthi


Sida spinosa


mayir manikkam


Sida spinosa


mayir-mamkkam


Sida veronicifolia


mayirmanikkam


Sida veronicifolia


kurunthotti


Sigesbeckia orientalis


karuntumpai

->

Silybum marianum (Silymarin, Milk Thistle) rath-Ikiriya ? – – Introduced palt, rarely, up-country.
The seeds are used medicinally.
hepato-protective herb containing Favanoids, polyphenols etc., but not established via
relaible experiments.
Image  
Wikipedia Simmondsia Chinesis (Jojoba) Godawavletiya, Godavavletiya ?- – – Image, Jojoba tree

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Smilax zeylanica


tirunamappalai


Solanum anguivi


karimulli


Solanum anguivi


mulli


Solanum erianthum


aanai sundaikkai


Solanum erianthum


sunta


Solanum ferox


yanaiccuntai


Solanum ferox


anaiccuntai2


Solanum giganteum


paintilikakkoti

->

Solanum indica, s. indicum
family: Solanaceae
Image and write up Thibbatu, batu brahati- karimulli, mulli Thibbotuvaeva (Mullikulam, Mulliyan)
BatuvaevKanda (Mullikulam Malai)
Thibbotuwala (Mulliyawalai)
Batumunna (Kumulamunai)
Used in many herbal and ayurvedic medications, herbal teas, for
coughs, fever etc.
Comonent of the herbal tonic Dashamoola arishtaya Solanum melongena (prickly night shade) Elabatu -bhantaki valutalai An older name, "singhi", is mentioned in B. Clough&#39;s 19th century dictionary. Solanum melongena, Sol. macrocarpon (Brinjals, Egg Plant) Wambotu, Vambatu, Vambotu Vatimgana kattari There is a sinhalese saying,
"Ata wambotu, nava hungan dunnaa vaagei", i.e.,
"eight brinjals, but nine taxes to pay". This is based on a story
about a man went to sell eight brinjals in a village
where there were nine headmen. He had to give each headmen a
brinjal, and his basket to the ninth, just to get permission to
enter the village.(John Seneviratne&#39;s book of proverbs). Solanum mauritianum Wal varaa – – Dumpalaava (Thumpalai) Solanum seaforthianum Wal Thibbbatu – – –

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Solanum nigrum

kakamaci-
manattakkali


Solanum nigrum


manathakkali

->

Solanum surattense (Yellow berried nightshade) kauvael batu, kahabatu – nitiktika, kantankattirai Used in many herbal and ayurvedic medications, herbal teas, for
coughs, fever, asthma, rheumatism (leaf); sore throat (fruit) etc.
Component of the herbal tonic Dashamoola arishtaya

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Solanum surattense


kantankattiri


Solanum torvum


cuntai
->

Solanum trilobatum Vael Tibbotu alarka- tutuvalai, thuthulai –

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Solanum verbascifolium


katuki


Solanum verbascifolium


cuntai
->

Solanum xanthocarpum; synon: S. Surattense, S. virginianum, S. jacquini katuwael Batu nidigdhika- kantakari kantankattiri See under S. Surattense

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Solanum xanthocarpum


kantan kattiri
->

Solemostemon rohindifolius Innala – – –

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Solena amplexicaulis


pulivanci


Solena amplexicaulis


pulivanji


Sonchus oleraceus


ucittakarai
->

Sonneratia caseolaris, Sonaratia caseolaris (mangrove apple) Kirala – ucittakarai Irlaikkulam, KuriKadduvan, Kilali Sophora tomentosa (yellow-neckless pod) Moodu Murunga – – Sophora tomentosa
Family: Faboideae / Leguminosae / Papilionaceae
The inedible pod has some similarities
to the Murunga pod. It has been used to make fish poisons,
 insect and spider repelleents etc.,
esp in Africa.

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Soymida febrifuga


vadamalaichekku


Soymida febrifuga


sombupattai


Spathodea campanulata


patadi


Spermacoce hispida


taruni


Spermacoce hispida


toliyakarampai


Sphaeranthus indicus


kottakkarandai


Sphaeranthus indicus


kottai karanthai


Sphenoclea zeylanica


calipippili

->

Spilanthes acmella,Acmella oleracea (Tootache plant) Akmella Pipulka- Akki-rakaram

Images and write up It is used for toothache. Chewing the leaves, or
applying a tincture of the flowers or the fresh
juice to the gums, when both pain and swelling are relieved.

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Spilanthes calva


angaravalli

->

Spinifex squarrosus Maha Raavana Raevula – – – Spondias magnifera Sarana – – see under Adampan

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Spondias pinnata


nalini
->

Stemodia camphorata
Stemodia. Lutes; Gona Kola
ගෝන කොල

S. Lutes is `kaha gonakola&#39;. – – – Strychnos potatorum Ingini – – TThe seeds (ingini aeta) are used traditionally to "purify" water in wells. Stachytarpheta dichotoma Sudu balunakuta – – There is also a Vil nakuta – Stachytarpheta mutabilis maha balunakuta – – – Stachytarpheta urticaefolia Balunakuta – – – Stemonoporus Mooni (Thwaites) Hora wel, Hora vael – –

The Walawwewatta Waturana: the unique swamp forest Stemonoporus wightii (Thw.) Hal-Mendora – – IUCN red listed. Stemonurus apicalis Uruhonda – – –

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Stephania japonica


molakaranaikkoti
->

Sterculia balanghas Nava, Nawa – – –

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Sterculia guttata


kawili


Sterculia guttata


kavalam


Sterculia villosa


anainar


Sterculia villosa


muratthan

->

Stereospermum chelonoids, syninym: Bignonia chelonoides Ela-Palol – ambu used in the medicinal
tonic Dashamoola aristaya, see S. Sauveolens Stereospermum suaveolens, Sterospermum suaveolens
S. personatum,
Bignonia Suaveolens
(trumpet tree, snake tree ) Palol Paataala,
kaamavRntA,
kRSNavRntA patirimaram

Images for Palol and pharmacy.

Middle-sized flowering tree. Plant parts are used in the Sri Lankan "
Dashamoola
Arishtaya", and in Indian medicine. It is used to treat inflammations, vomiting,
dyspepsia, flatulence, asthma, fevers, anasarca, "diseases of the blood". A decoction of the
roots is used to treat intermittent and puerperal fevers, inflammatory chest affections, etc. The
ethanol extract of the bark is found to show Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Activity. Streblus asper
Sandpaper tree, Siamese rough bush,
toothbrush tree ;
 (Salvadora persica is also known as "tooth brush tre) Nitul, Gaeta Nitul, Netul Shakhotaka, Saakhota, pathrollekhatharu pira, piraay, Parai-maram (
Urumpirai is a Village in the Jaffna peninsula.
Twigs are used as toothbrushes. The tree bark ("khoi" in Thailand) is used for paper making.
The Buddhist texts and official records before the twentieth century in Thailand
 are known as khoi books (c.f., Sanskrit name: patrollekhataru – i.e., lekhana on pathra).
  The paper is durable even in high-humidity climates. Strobilanthes calycina
Acnthaceae family kaha Nelu
Image and brief notes – – – Strobilanthes hookeri Sudu Nelu – – – Strobilanthes pulcherrima, S.-viscosa Nelu
Image and some notes – – – Strychnos nux-vomica (Snake wood tree) Kaduru, Goda kaduru kalshti, kupilu, Vishamushti yetti, ettiu, Eddi, Etti, Kagodi Kaduruthuduva (Kanchirankuda),
Kadurumotte (Kanchuramoddai)
Kadurugoda (Kandarodai)
Contains the strongly poisonous alkaloid Strychnine and Brucine.
It is used in Ayurvedic and Homeopathic medicine, as well as
for suicidal portions etc. The wood is used for making
Thovil masks-Ritual masks
used traditionally in low-country rituals and "exorcisms", but today mainly as wall decorations.
Images and write up Strychnos potatorum Inginiya kataka- Theatta, terran kottai Toponyms
Inginidoova (Thettativu)
Gaetakuliya (Tettakkuli)
Inginiyagala Sunaptera scabriuscula (Thw.) Trim. Napath Beraliya – – IUCN red listed Swietenia macrophyllaHonduras mahogany.
Meliaceae famille Burutha – tettankottai

Important Timber tree.
ToponymsKaluburuthamaduva (Kollamarutamadu)
Buruthamaduva (Maruthamadu)
Buruthoya (Maruthodai) Swietenia mahogni (Mahogony)
Meliaceae famille Burutha – tettankottai

Important Timber tree.
ToponymsKaluburuthamaduva (Kollamarutamadu)
Buruthamaduva (Maruthamadu)
Buruthoya (Maruthodai)
The Mahogany tree is a favoured commemorative plant, e.g., the Horana mahogany tree planted by
Ernesto Che Guevera when he visited Sri Lanka in the 1960s. It is also depicted in a stamp. Symplocos cochinchinensis
synonym: Symplocos stawellii Bombu බෝඹු Lodra, Tilvaka, Tilva, Kramuka- kambli-vetti
Malayalam : Pachotti. The place name "Bombura" (central province) may be related to this plant name.

Twigs of this plant is used as `toothbrushes&#39; in rural Sri Lanka, in the same way
as `Karanda&#39; twigs.
Images etc.

medicinal uses It is claimed to be an anti-diabetic tonic. `kashaya" made of its
bark is used for
inflammation, asthma, cough, ulcers, skin diseases, arthritis, leucorrhoea, diarrhea, and skin discoloration.
Antibacterial activity of the plant extract has also been reported.
antibacterial screening of plants
Reg. anti-diabietic action: see Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 134, Issue 2, 24 March 2011, Pages 298-304
 doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.018

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Symplocos cochinchinensis
laurina
laurina
kambli-vetti


Symplocos racemosa


vellilottiram


Symplocos racemosa


vellattippattai


Symplocos spicata


kamblivetti

->

Symphylum officinale (Knitbone) – – Traditonal non-Sri lankan
medicinal herb and weed. Used in healing bones, and as an ointment for dry skin.
It has poisonous alkaloids. It grows in Eurasia and
rarely found, or unknown in Sri lanka.

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Syzygium aromaticum


kirampu


Syzygium aromaticum


kirambu

->

Syzygium cumini Madan, Maadan – naaval The bark is used in indegenous medicine. The berry, rich
in vitamins and anti-oxidants, is edible but not
collected commercially.

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Syzygium cumini


navale


Syzygium hemisphericum


vellainaval
->

Syzygium fergu
Family Myrtaceaesoni Val Karabu, Wal karabu – – Image Syzygium jambos (Jamun tree, rose apple) Jambu – perunavalGeorge Willty, campai "The word "Jambu" occurs in the classical name "Jambudveepa",
as applied to the Indian continent. Old Sri Lankan place names like Dambakolathota (Kankesanthurai)
 Dambakolapatune (Sambilithuai)
are well known. Note that "sampa" was a name used for "Brahma", and
hence "Jambudveepa" may have simply meant the "Land of the Brahma", rather than the
land of "Jambu trees". The fruit may have got the name "Jambu"
from the alternative meaning of the word which referes to the color "Jambu", or "damba", or
"campa". Thus "Jambuka" is a name applied to the rouge fox, taken over even to
Tamil as "campukam" Syzygium makul Alubo – – –
Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes

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Tabernaemontana coronaria


nanthia

->

Tabernaemontana coronaria (Crape Jasmine) Watusudda – nantiyavattam Tabernaemontana divaricata (Pinwheel flower)
See flowering plants of the family Apocynaceae Wathu sudda, Watusudda, Watu sudda, Vathu sudda, Vathu-sudda nandivrksah- adukkunandiyavattai, nandi-battai, Nandiar-vattai This flowering plant, with double petaled flowers, is very common in Sri Lanka,
in wet-zone hedges and Buddhist temples. It is considerd to be
an introduced species. "Vatu-sudda" in sinhala could mean "clean garden", "holy garden", or
"garden white". Plants related to this, e.g., tabernanthe iboga, is not found in Sr lanka,
have gained currency as hallucinogens, and in alternative HIV "treatments"
which have not been investigated systematically.
The plant has a milky sap, and the petals end with a sub-extension.
Image and write up

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Tagetes erecta


kancappucceti


Tagetes erecta


tulukkuccevvanti
->

Tamarindus indica Siyambala amlika, tintrini, tintili puli, puliyamaram This name of the tree occurs in many place names.
Mahasiyambala vaevkanda (Paddiapuliyankulammalai)
Mahasiyambala weva (Periyapuliyankulam)

Siyambala is an important part of Sri Lankan food preparations,
often replacing Goraka (Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar
 tamarind).in many dishes. It is used in chutneys, sauces, relishes
 and curries.

It has been a part of folk medicine from ancient times, with
Tamarind being prescribed for use instead of Salt in Sanskrit texts
which also claim that Krshna, Vishnu and Indra favoured
 the shade of this tree, Today, the tree is used in Bonsai gardens as well.

The pulp of the fruit contains tannins, saponins,
sesquiterpenes, alkaloids and phlobatamins. Extracts are
active against
gramme+ and gramnégatif bacteria,
against Salmonella
paratyphi, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi, and
against Staphylococcus aureus. It contains antioxidents and
phenolic components such that
Tamarind may be an important source of cancer chemopreventive
 natural products in the tropics.
See Y. Sudjaroen
et al. Food and Chemical Toxicology
Volume 43, Issue 11, November 2005, Pages 1673-1682
and references
en cela

It is a common for health remedy in Asia. It is used as decoction
 for the treatment of gastric and/or digestion
problems,as a laxative for stomach disorders, general body pain, jaundice,
yellow fever and as blood tonic and skin cleanser. Leaves are used
as a herbal infusion for malarial fever, the fruit juice as an anti-septic, and scurvy and
even cough cure.
Tamarind has been found to lower serum cholesterol and blood
sugar levels (in animal studies).
traditionnel
medicine write up

Thus traditional remedicinal uses are:: Anthelminthic (expels worms), antimicrobial,
antiseptic, antiviral, asthma, astringent, bacterial skin infections
(erysipelas), boils, chest pain, cholesterol metabolism disorders, colds,
colic, conjunctivitis (pink eye), constipation (chronic or acute), diabetes,
diarrhea (chronic), dry eyes, dysentery (severe diarrhea), eye inflammation,
fever, food preservative, food uses (coloring), gallbladder disorders,
gastrointestinal disorders, gingivitis, hemorrhoids, indigestion, insecticide,
jaundice, keratitis (inflammation of the cornea), leprosy, liver disorders,
nausea and vomiting (pregnancy-related), paralysis, poisoning (Datura plant),
rash, rheumatism, saliva production, skin disinfectant/sterilization, sore
throat, sores, sprains, sunscreen, sunstroke, swelling (joints), urinary
stones, wound healing (corneal epithelium)

Taxus baccata (Europen Yew), Taxus wallichiana
Image and write up Yoo gaha, Thaelipath (? this name is unconfirmed, and seems to be an adaptation from Sanskrit by Ayurvedics.) Talishpatra, Mandhuparni, Sukapuspa
The sanskrit name &#39;mandukparni&#39; refers to the leaves of the plant, which resembles the claw
The name &#39;taxus&#39; probabaly arose from the Greek "Toxus", or "toxic", and used as an arrow-poison.
The name &#39;Taxus&#39; is sometimes claimed to arise from the sanskrit stem "Taksh", the cutter, and the
tree branches were used to cut out bows (taxus = spear, taxon = bow). Baccata referes to its berries (in latin bacca is berry) Thalishapaththiri, தாளிசபத்திரி Not native to Sri Lanka. But (occassionally) found in horticultural applications in upper elevations.
This is a very slow growing evergreen tree which can attain great age. Trees as old as 1000 years are found in
Normandy, France (si in French for yew), in Wales etc., often with a chapel attached into the trunk of the tree. It is poisonous, but has become famous for "Taxol", claimed as an "alternative medicine" for various types of cancer, etc.
Medicinal claims Tecoma stans (Yellow Elder) rankaerali, Kelantissa?, Kaelanitissa? – tankarali, swarnaptti national flower of the Bahamas

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Tecoma stans


swarna-patti

->

Tectona grandis (Teak, Indian Oak) The~kka (~ signify long sound) Saaka, Sabarasaara, Kolaphala, bardaru, bhumisah, dwardaru, kharchchada thekku The sanskrit "Shaaka" → "Thaaka" → "The~kka" in Sinhala

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Tectona grandis


tekku


Tephrosia hirta


punaikkirai 2


Tephrosia hirta


punaikkali 2

->

Telosma cordata(Chinese violet)

Family: Apocynaceae or Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed family)
Images and write up Vael varaa (?)
Fragrant Telosma is an evergreen woody twiner vine, not well known in Sri lanka. -Guaalmanda ? Chambangi Extremely frgrant vine, natibve to China, Thailand etc. The flowers are used in Thai cooking. Tephrosia purpurea (wild indigo) Kathurupila, Pila sarapunkha- kavali, kolluk-kay-velai Plant of the pea family.
the leaves and seeds contain tephrosin, which paralyzes fish. Larger doses are lethal to fish, but mammals and amphibians are unaffected. It is used in sinhlala orthopedic medicine.
Kathurupila is claimed to be used in the treatment of glandular swellings,
 spleen diseases, cancerous tumors, enlargement of liver and spleen, diabetes and skin diseases, since centuries in south Asia.
Images and write up

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Tephrosia purpurea


kolluk-kay-velai


Tephrosia villosa


punaikkaivetlai


Tephrosia villosa


vayakkavalai


Teramnus labialis


araniya kulattikai


Teramnus labialis


kattu uzhundu


Terminalia alata


karumarudam


Terminalia alata


karramarda
->

Terminalia arjuna Kumbuk kakubha- maruthu, marutu

Place names: Rankumbukka (Sainthamaruthu)

Image and writeup
Bark is used as cardiac tonic. Powdered bark-decoction is used
  in South-Asian medicine to treat heart diseases, bone fractures, skin diseases, polyuria,
    white discharge,
   giddiness, fever, leprosy, worms, excessive thirst, wounds, diarrhoea and
   intrinsic hemorrhage. Fruits used externally to heal chronic ulcers.
This may be a component of Maruthu Neer, a herbal concoction used for
   ceremonial bathing to celebrate
   "Puthandu" (Tamil New Year). Terminalia bellirica, T. Bellerica,
(Beleric, bastard myrobalan, Belliric Myrobalan ) Bulu Bibhitaki, Bhaira tanri, tanikkay, Pulu

Place names: Mahabulukanda (Periyapullumalai)
Buluweva (Tandikkulam)
The nuts were used as dice in ancient times, from when
the Sanskrit name "kali".
It is part of the "Aralu, Bulu, Nelli combination of Tripala
, a mild laxative
used in S. Asia. There are tanning agents in the crushed bark and fruit.
  It is a major constituent of other Ayurvedic Tonics, sinhala "kashaya" etc.
  It is included in cough mixtures, sore throat preparations etc.
  The crushed dried fruit is available in tablet form and sold
  as alternative medicine in the west.

Images and notes.

Terminalia catappa (tropical Almond) Kottan, Kottamba tailaphala- nattuvadumai, nattu-vadam Kottandoova (Kottantivu)
Kottangolla (Kottanchole )
The tree may grow to 30 meters, with large
ovoid glossy dark green leaves which change into orange and red when about to fall.
The "false" nuts are inside a hard shell.
Tropical Almond Terminalia chebula

Aralu Haritaki – kadukkai .an ever green medium sized to big sized tree. The fruits are the most
important product.
It part of the "Aralu, Bulu, Nelli combination of ,Thripala
 a mild laxative
used in S. Asia. The are strong tanning agents (Cherubulinic acid, tannic acid,
Gallic acid) in the crushed fruit and bark. It is widely used in south
asian medicine in the treatment
of diarrhea, dysentery, heart-burn, flatulence, dyspepsia, liver and spleen
disorders. It is a major constituent of other Ayurvedic Tonics, sinhala
Kashaayas. The dried crushed fruit is available now in tablet form in the west
as part of herbal medicine.

Images

Terminalia chebula Hari-taka haritaki- katukkay –

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Terminalia crenulata


karu marutha


Terminalia paniculata


pulavai


Terminalia tomentosa


mikkuvam


Terminalia tomentosa


matthi
->

Thelypteris Bergiana, (synonym of Amauropelta hakgalensis)/i>
also: Thelypteris maemonensis, (Amauropelta, Christella etc. are a large group of ferns)
Kakilla, Kaekilla – – Image
Amauropelta hakgalensis is a threatened species.
Hakgala is a region not far from Bandarawela in the South-Eastern slope of the
central hills of Sri Lanka. Thespesia populnea SOORIYA, Suriya, Gam sooriya Plaksa, kapitana, parisa puvarasu, Poovarasu

Sooriyaweva (Poovarasankulam)
Sooriyadoova (Poovarasantivu)
Kuda-sooriyaweva (Sinnapuwarasankulam)
Kanda-uda-sooriyaweva (Kanthaudaiyarpuvarasankulam)
This is a Ficus species, popularly used as a fence tree. Its
leaves are used for treating skin infections.

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Thevetia neriifolia


paccai alari


Thevetia neriifolia


tiruvatci
->

Thunbergia fragrans – – intiraputpi

%

Thymus Vulgaris (Thyme

Image and write up) Thyme, Vana-Yavani

The plant is not natural in Sri Lanka, nut can be grown in the dry,
cooler hills of the Uva, and similar areas when planted.
~silver thyme&#39; and `lemon thyme&#39; pleasently aromatic
are hardier varieties.

The name vana-yavani is used in Ayurveda, and most
 probably borrowed from Sanskrit.
The account of thyme given by Ms. M. Grieve is worth reading.>

Vanya Yavani,
There are many varieties of thyme, and some are
not culinary but used as ornamental plants. Omam ? It is a pungent-pleasant smelling herb,
 due to the presence of essential oils, terpenes, thymol etc. The
 herb is used in Mediterranean and French cooking.
 Antiseptic and other medicinal properties
are exploited in `alternative medicine&#39;. Tinospora cordifolia, Cocculus cordifolius (Indian Tinaspora) Rasakinda amrta, Guruchi- seenthil, cintil, Shindil-kodi, Amirthavalli, Kunali Rasakindala (Amirthakaly) This plant is highly valued in&#39;Sri lankan traditional
medications. It is claimed to help reduce Gout, arthritis etc. It may be an ingredient of Ayurvedic
preparations like Haritaki,Vibhitaki,
amalaki
.
A well known preparation is known as "Dhathimodaka". Purtroppo,
double-blind evaluations of these medications have not yet been done.
Images and write up Tithonia diversifolia
(tree marigold)
Asteraceae family
Imags and write up Wal-Suriyakanthi, Val sooriya, Wata Suriya – – This is a "giant" species. It is a flowering plant (like a marigold),
 belonging to the Aster family and introduced to
Sri Lanka, found esp.in middle elevations. In the early 20th century, wild Sunflower, Wal Suriyakantha Tithonia diversifolia was a most important green manure in Lanka for paddy fields Toddalia aculeata – – milakaranai

->

Toddalia aculeata Kudu Miris – milagaranai – Torenia asiatica Wael-Kothala, Wael Kotala, Wel Kotala
වැල් කොතල – – –

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Toddalia asiatica


milakaranai


Toddalia asiatica


milagaranai


Tonningia axillaris


vazhukai pul


Tragia cannabina


turpparigam


Tragia involucrata


kandudi


Tragia involucrata


kancori


Trewia nudiflora


cetippuvaracu


Trewia nudiflora


naykkumil


Trianthema decandra


caranai

->

Trianthema decandra Maha Saarana, maha-sarana – catti caranai small edible herb, referred to as "Sithandika" in
Sinhala medicinal texts.
The name "sulu-saarana" also exists, and presumably refers to
a small-leaved variety. Trianthema monogyna Sarana – – –

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Trianthema portulacastrum


sharunnai


Trianthema portulacastrum


shavalai

->

Tribulus terrestris (Puncturevine, Caltrop, Yellow Vine, and Goathead) Gokatu, Nerenchi Goksura,Gokantaka, Svadanstra etc, sembu nerenchi, neruncil, nerenjikeeraai

Prostrate vine – generally less than 2.5 cm high, spreading to 1.5 M or more depending on climate.
This is used in the traditional " Dashamoola arishtaya" of Sri Lanka, a concoction
containing 10 ingredients. Used as a remedy for impotence, perhaps by
increase of testosterone etc but not firmly established)..
The active chemical in T. terrestris is likely to be protodioscin (PTN)
The botanical name identification may have some problems, as indicated
by Gunatillaka and Sotheeswaran: J. Natn. Sci. Coun. Sri Lanka vol 8, p 11-29 (1980)
(Garcinia morella has also been given as Gokatu)
images

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Tribulus terrestris


nerunci


Trichodesma indicum


kaviltumpai

->

Trichodesma indicum (Indian Borage)

Images and write up Adhapuspi pankatavikakkoti, Kazhuthaiththumpai It is found on roadsides and stony dry wastelands, upto 1,500 m.
 The plant is acrid, bitter in taste. Trichodesma zeylanicum (Camel Bush, Cattle bush)
Images and write up Thrikantha Jalasirasa (Hindi) kalutaikkali A weedy species of roadsides, disturbed ground and old lands
This plant is used in Ayurveda for the treatment of leucoderma and piles. Trichopus Zeylanicus

Image and write up Bim pol
However, this has little to do with "pol", i.e.e, coconut. The fruit can be eaten, and the leafe looks a bit like a large betal leaf. Flowers are purplish black Arogya pachcha- – A herb native to Lanka, and found in the wet low lands, and also in Ritigala. The fruit is said to give strenth and vitality, and the Sanskrit name means "Health giving green". The export of the herb is forbidden in
Sri Lanka presumably to privent bio-piracy. However, little is done in Sri Lanka about commercializing it.
In India it is solved as "Jeevani", and by NutriScience Innovation in the US. Trichosanthes cucumerina, Tr. anguina Pathola, Dummalla, Dummella, Dummaella – Pudulankaai A type of Gourde and vegetable. A variety of Pathola is used with other
herbs in treating Rheumatoid arthritis (known in Sinhala as Gambheera Vatha
Raktha) in Sinhala herbal medicine and Ayurveda. The decoction contains
Dummaella (Trichosanthes cucumerina), Katukarosana (Picrorrliza kurrooa),
Asparagus roots (Asparagus racemosus), etc. with Erandu oil (oil from ricinus
communis seeds).
Image Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) Uluhaal, uluhal Methika, Peetbeeja Vendayam This a small plant in the Pea family, and the plant as well as the
seed are used in cooking. The seed is used in pickles and curry powders.
Used as condiment in S. Asian cooking.
Fenugreek auguments lactation of nursing mothers, shown to lower serum
cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein in human patients and
experimental models of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.
Fenugreek seeds reduce metabolic symptoms of type-1 and
type-2 diabetes by reducing serum
glucose and improving glucose tolerance.
Fenugreek in ayurveda

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Trichosanthes tricuspidata


korattai


Trichosanthes tricuspidata


kurattai


Tridax procumbens


vettukkaya puntu


triumfetta angulata
Wal apala, Vael Aepala-



Tylophora asthmatica


peyppalai


Tylophora asthmatica


kuravaram


Tylophora indica


nancaruppan


Tylophora indica


kaakittam


Tylophora tenuis


nanjaruppan


Typha angustata


sambu

->

The listing of these preparations does NOT mean that we endorse them or that we have tested them.
Adequate testing requires double-blind experiments in controlled clinical settings with good laboratory
support. However, anecdotal evidence should not be simply discarded. They often provide an alternative,
inexpensive treatment for many ailments, in a manner which is entirely at the control of the
patient, usually based on intake of herbs, and change of life-style. However, the explications
as to why a medication works, offered in terms of thri-doasha theories like va, pith,sem,
which do not recognize the role of microbes, viruses, genetics, and modern biochemistry are only
of interest to the historian of science.

Double-blind experiments enable one to evaluate the extent of the Placebo effect
in the claimed efficacy of a drug. In a double-blind experiment, the same drug and a mock-up
(fake) which looks/tastes/smells like the drug are given to two similar control groups of patients,
without anyone knowing who is getting what. Si le
fake (i.e., the placebo) performs as well as the drug, then the drug is worthless. Sometimes
double-blind experiments are done even at the level of in-vitro or animal tests, to
eliminate any possible bias on the part of the experimentalists and technicians conducting the tests.

Purity of the ingreadients used, reproducibility of the preparation and consumer protection
 are very important.

Experiments
 have revealed the presence of toxic ingredients like Lead (Pb),
mercury (Hg), harmful alcohols (e.g., methanol, propanols etc)
, as well as extreme
variation in the fraction of active ingredients in commercial Ayurvedic preparations.
This is due to lack of quality control.
 Some of these experiments have
been done at Nawinna
Ayur. center, Sri Lanka, as well as in WHO studies.
Use of certain herbs, e.g.,
Aristolochia indica (Indian Birthwort) to
attenuate fever, may be dangerous as it is believed to
be carcinogenic, and contains aristolochic acid which is highly nephrotoxic.
It has been claimed in a
WHO report
celui-la Stephania tetranda
should be used in herbal preparations
au lieu de Aristolchia fanghi ou A. Indica.

This website is maintained under the direction of
Prof. Chandre
 Dharmawardana

Please address all questions to place.names@yahoo.com

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